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# Reddit mentions of Calculus, 4th edition

Sentiment score: 39

Reddit mentions: 60

We found 60 Reddit mentions of Calculus, 4th edition. Here are the top ones.

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Here's my rough list of textbook recommendations. There are a ton of Dover paperbacks that I didn't put on here, since they're not as widely used, but they are really great and really cheap.

Amazon search for Dover Books on mathematics

There's also this great list of undergraduate books in math that has become sort of famous: https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~abhishek/chicmath.htm

Pre-Calculus / Problem-SolvingCalculusLinear AlgebraDifferential EquationsNumber TheoryProof-WritingAnalysisComplex AnalysisFunctional AnalysisPartial Differential EquationsHigher-dimensional Calculus and Differential GeometryAbstract AlgebraGeometryTopologySet Theory and LogicCombinatorics / Discrete MathGraph TheoryP. S., if you Google search any of the topics above, you are likely to find many resources. You can find a lot of lecture notes by searching, say, "real analysis lecture notes filetype:pdf site:.edu"It just comes from the way we define sums of infinite sums, aka series. .999... is just shorthand for (.9+.09+.09+.009...), which is an infinite sum. We define the sum of a series to be equal to the limit of the partial sums. The limit is rigorously defined, and you can read the definition on wikipedia if you google "epsilon delta". The limit of an infinite sum, if it exists, is unique. For this infinite sum, that limit is exactly 1. By the way we define infinite sums, .999... is therefore exactly equal to 1.

It's not so bad when you remember that

allreal numbers have a representation as a non-terminating decimal. 0.5 can be written as 0.4999... and 1/3 can be written as 0.333... and pi can be written as 3.14159... for example.And lastly, if .999... and 1 are different real numbers, then there must exist a number between them. This is because of an axiom we have called trichotomy: for any two real numbers a and b, exactly one of the following is true: a<b, a=b, a>b. If a=/=b, then there exists a real number between them, because the real numbers have a property called "dense". It is easy to prove that here is no such number between .999... and 1, real or otherwise. Therefore .999... is exactly equal to 1.

e: The sum (.9+.09+.009...) is bigger than every real number less than 1. You can check if you want. The smallest number that is greater than every real number less than 1 is 1 itself. We get this from an axiom called the "least upper bound property". Therefore .999... is

at least1. Using our rigorous definition of a limit, we find that it is exactly 1.e2: Apostol's Calculus vol 1 is a fantastic place to start learning about rigorous math shit. Chapter one starts you out with axioms for real numbers, and about half way through chapter 1 you prove the whole thing about repeating decimals corresponding to rational numbers. It is slow and easy to follow. Other people recommend Spivak but I haven't seen it so idk.

If you want to learn how calculus actually works (rather than just how to do computations), I highly recommend working through Spivak's

Calculus. Spivak builds up calculus from the foundations with mathematical rigor and actual proofs, explaining (and proving) what's really going on. (That includes properly developing sequences and limits.) The exercises are also excellent; many of them require real thought and insight, instead of the usual "repeat the steps you were just told fifty times" exercises that fill up mainstream calculus textbooks.Also, from a more sophisticated perspective,

dxis a differential form.One of the most fun things I did when I was first learning about proofs was proving the basic facts about algebra from axioms. Where I first read about these ideas was the first chapter of Spivak's Calculus. This would be a very high level book for an 18 year old, but if you decide to look at it, don't be afraid to take your time a little.

Another option is just picking up an introduction to proof, like Velleman's How to Prove It. This wil lteach you the basics for proving anything, really, and is a great start if you want to do more math.

If you want a free alternative to that last one, you can look at The Book of Proof by Richard Hammack. It's well-written although I think it's shorter than How to Prove It.

There would have been a time that I would have suggested getting a curriculum

text book and going through that, but if you're doing this for independent work

I wouldn't really suggest that as the odds are you're not going to be using a

very good source.

Going on the typical

Arithmetic > Algebra > Calculus

****## Arithmetic

Arithmetic refresher. Lots of stuff in here - not easy.

I think you'd be set after this really. It's a pretty terse text in general.

*

****## Algebra

Algebra by Chrystal Part I

Algebra by Chrystal Part II

You can get both of these algebra texts online easily and freely from the search

`chrystal algebra part I filetype:pdf`

`chrystal algebra part II filetype:pdf`

I think that you could get the first (arithmetic) text as well, personally I

prefer having actual books for working. They're also valuable for future

reference. This

`filetype:pdf`

search should be remembered and used liberallyfor finding things such as worksheets etc (eg

`trigonometry worksheet<br /> filetype:pdf`

for a search...).Algebra by Gelfland

No where near as comprehensive as chrystals algebra, but interesting and well

written questions (search for 'correspondence series' by Gelfand).

## Calculus

Calculus made easy - Thompson

This text is really good imo, there's little rigor in it but for getting a

handle on things and bashing through a few practical problems it's pretty

decent. It's all single variable. If you've done the algebra and stuff before

this then this book would be easy.

Pauls Online Notes (Calculus)

These are just a solid set of Calculus notes, there're lots of examples to work

through which is good. These go through calc I, II, III... So a bit further than

you've asked (I'm not sure why you state up to calc II but ok).

Spivak - Calculus

If you've gone through Chrystals algebra then you'll be used to a formal

approach. This text is only single variable calculus (so that might be calc I

and II in most places I think, ? ) but it's extremely well written and often

touted as one of the best Calculus books written. It's very pure, where as

something like Stewart has a more applied emphasis.

**## Geometry

I've got given any geometry sources, I'm not too sure of the best source for

this or (to be honest) if you

reallyneed it for the above. If someone hasgood geometry then they're certainly better off, many proofs are given

gemetrically as well and having an intuition for these things is only going to

be good. But I think you can get through without a formal course on it.... I'm

not confident suggesting things on it though, so I'll leave it to others. Just

thought I'd mention it.

****There are essentially "two types" of math: that for mathematicians and everyone else. When you see the sequence Calculus(1, 2, 3) -> Linear Algebra -> DiffEq (in that order) thrown around, you can be sure they are talking about non-rigorous, non-proof based kind that's good for nothing, imo of course. Calculus in this sequence is Analysis with all its important bits chopped off, so that everyone not into math can get that outta way quick and concentrate on where their passion lies. The same goes for Linear Algebra. LA in the sequence above is absolutely butchered so that non-math majors can pass and move on. Besides, you don't take LA or Calculus or other math subjects just once as a math major and move on: you take a rigorous/proof-based intro as an undergrad, then more advanced kind as a grad student etc.

To illustrate my point:

Linear Algebra:

Linear Algebra Through Geometry by Banchoff and Wermer

3. Here's more rigorous/abstract Linear Algebra for undergrads:

Linear Algebra Done Right by Axler

4. Here's more advanced grad level Linear Algebra:

Advanced Linear Algebra by Steven Roman

-----------------------------------------------------------

Calculus:

Calulus by Spivak

3. Full-blown undergrad level Analysis(proof-based):

Analysis by Rudin

4. More advanced Calculus for advance undergrads and grad students:

Advanced Calculus by Sternberg and Loomis

The same holds true for just about any subject in math. Btw, I am not saying you should study these books. The point and truth is you can start learning

mathright now, right this moment instead of reading lame and useless books designed to extract money out of students. Besides, there are so many more math subjects that are so much more interesting than the tired old Calculus: combinatorics, number theory, probability etc. Each of those have intros you can get started with right this moment.Here's how you start studying real math NOW:

Learning to Reason: An Introduction to Logic, Sets, and Relations by Rodgers. Essentially, this book is about the language that you need to be able to understand mathematicians, read and write proofs. It's not terribly comprehensive, but the amount of info it packs beats the usual first two years of math undergrad 1000x over. Books like this should be taught in high school. For alternatives, look into

Discrete Math by Susanna Epp

How To prove It by Velleman

Intro To Category Theory by Lawvere and Schnauel

There are TONS great, quality books out there, you just need to get yourself a liitle familiar with what real math looks like, so that you can explore further on your own instead of reading garbage and never getting even one step closer to mathematics.

If you want to consolidate your knowledge you get from books like those of Rodgers and Velleman and take it many, many steps further:

Basic Language of Math by Schaffer. It's a much more advanced book than those listed above, but contains all the basic tools of math you'll need.

I'd like to say soooooooooo much more, but I am sue you're bored by now, so I'll stop here.

Good Luck, buddyroo.

If you are getting your degree in math or computer science, you will probably have to take a course on "Discrete math" (or maybe an "introduction to proofs") in your first year or two (it should be by your 3rd semester). Unfortunately, this will probably be the first time you will take a course that is more about the

whythan thehow. (On the bright side, almost everything after this will focus on why instead of how.) Depending on how linear algebra is taught at your university, and the order you take classes in, linear algebra may be also be such a class.If your degree is anything else, you may have no formal requirement to learn the

why.For the math you are learning right now, analysis is the "why". I'm not sure of a good analysis book, but there are two calculus books which treat the subject more like a gentle introduction to analysis-- Apostol's and Spivak's. Your library might have a copy you can check out. If not, you can probably find pdfs (which are probably[?] legal) online.

No, his single variable book.

I do plan on reading Calculus on Manifolds eventually, though.

You're not really doing higher math right now as much as you're learning tricks to solve problems. Once you start proving stuff that'll be a big jump. Usually people start doing that around Real Analysis like your father said. Higher math classes almost entirely consist of proofs. It's a lot of fun once you get the hang of it, but if you've never done it much before it can be jarring to learn how. The goal is to develop mathematical maturity.

Start learning some geometry proofs or pick up a book called "Calculus" by Spivak if you want to start proving stuff now. The Spivak book will give you a massive head start if you read it before college. Differential equations will feel like a joke after this book. It's called calculus but it's really more like real analysis for beginners with a lot of the harder stuff cut out. If you can get through the first 8 chapters or so, which are the hardest ones, you'll understand a lot of mathematics much more deeply than you do now. I'd also look into a book called Linear Algebra done right. This one might be harder to jump into at first but it's overall easier than the other book.

If you're looking for other texts, I would suggest Spivak's

CalculusandCalculus on Manifolds. At first the text may seem terse, and the exercises difficult, but it will give you a huge advantage for later (intermediate-advanced) undergraduate college math.It may be a bit obtuse to recommend you start with these texts, so maybe your regular calculus texts, supplemented with linear algebra and differential equations, should be approached first. When you start taking analysis and beyond, though, these books are probably the best way to return to basics.

I think the most important part of being able to see beauty in mathematics is transitioning to texts which are based on proofs rather than application. A side effect of gaining the ability to read and write proofs is that you're forced to deeply understand the theory of the math you're learning, as well as actively using your intuition to solve problems, rather than dry route calculations found in most application based textbooks. Based on what you've written, I feel you may enjoy taking this path.

Along these lines, you could start of with Book of Proof (free) or How to Prove It. From there, I would recommend starting off with a lighter proof based text, like Calculus by Spivak, Linear Algebra Done Right by Axler, or Pinter's book as you mentioned. Doing any intro proofs book plus another book at the level I mentioned here would have you well prepared to read any standard book at the undergraduate level (Analysis, Algebra, Topology, etc).

If she's bright and interested enough you might want to consider getting her an entry level college calculus book such as Spivak's.

It won't pose a replacement to the technical approach of high school, but it will illuminate a lot.

I think this is a better approach than trying to tie connections between calculus and other areas of math, because calculus has an inherent beauty of its own which could be very compelling when taught with the right philosophical approach.

I hear Spivak's book is pretty challenging. I think that it is considered more challenging because it is strongly focused on the mathematical arguments rather than the mechanical computations.

For a challenge in applying your Calc II knowledge: take a look at Forman Acton's Real Computing Made Real. Chapter Zero on Tools of the Trade and Sketching Functions can be pretty challenging (lots of Taylor expansions, crazy algebra, etc.).

>When university starts, what can I do to ensure that I can compete and am just as good as the best mathematics students?

Read textbooks for mathematics students.

For example for Linear Algebra I heard that Axler's book is very good (I studied Linear Algebra in another language, so I can't really suggest anything from personal experience). For Calculus I personally suggest Spivak's book.

There are many books that I could suggest, but one of the greatest books I've ever read is The Art and Craft of Problem Solving.

Intro Calculus, in American sense, could as well be renamed "Physics 101" or some such since it's not a very mathematical course. Since Intro Calculus won't teach you how to think you're gonna need a book like How to Solve Word Problems in Calculus by Eugene Don and Benay Don pretty soon.

Aside from that, try these:

Excursions In Calculus by Robert Young.

Calculus:A Liberal Art by William McGowen Priestley.

Calculus for the Ambitious by T. W. KORNER.

Calculus: Concepts and Methods by Ken Binmore and Joan Davies

You can also start with "Calculus proper" = Analysis. The Bible of not-quite-analysis is:

[Calculus by Michael Spivak] (http://www.amazon.com/Calculus-4th-Michael-Spivak/dp/0914098918/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1413311074&amp;sr=1-1&amp;keywords=spivak+calculus).

Also, Analysis is all about inequalities as opposed to Algebra(identities), so you want to be familiar with them:

Introduction to Inequalities by Edwin F. Beckenbach, R. Bellman.

Analytic Inequalities by Nicholas D. Kazarinoff.

As for Linear Algebra, this subject is all over the place. There is about a million books of all levels written every year on this subject, many of which is trash.

My plan would go like this:

1. Learn the geometry of LA and how to prove things in LA:

Linear Algebra Through Geometry by Thomas Banchoff and John Wermer.

Linear Algebra, Third Edition: Algorithms, Applications, and Techniques

by Richard Bronson and Gabriel B. Costa.

2. Getting a bit more sophisticated:

Linear Algebra Done Right by Sheldon Axler.

Linear Algebra: An Introduction to Abstract Mathematics by Robert J. Valenza.

Linear Algebra Done Wrong by Sergei Treil.

3. Turn into the LinAl's 1% :)

Advanced Linear Algebra by Steven Roman.

Good Luck.

You need some grounding in foundational topics like Propositional Logic, Proofs, Sets and Functions for higher math. If you've seen some of that in your Discrete Math class, you can jump straight into Abstract Algebra, Rigorous Linear Algebra (if you know some LA) and even Real Analysis. If thats not the case, the most expository and clearly written book on the above topics I have ever seen is Learning to Reason: An Introduction to Logic, Sets, and Relations by Nancy Rodgers.

Some user friendly books on Real Analysis:

Some user friendly books on Linear/Abstract Algebra:

Topology(even high school students can manage the first two titles):

Some transitional books:

Plus many more- just scour your local library and the internet.

Good Luck, Dude/Dudette.

I recommend you start studying proofs first. How to Prove It by Velleman is a great book for new math students. I went through the first three chapters myself before my first analysis course, and it made all the difference.

As you are taking a class than combines analysis and calculus, you might benefit from Spivak's book Calculus, which despite it's title, is precisely a combination of calculus and real analysis.

Learn math first. Physics is essentially applied math with experiments. Start with Calculus then Linear Algebra then Real Analysis then Complex Analysis then Ordinary Differential Equations then Partial Differential Equations then Functional Analysis. Also, if you want to pursue high energy physics and/or cosmology, Differential Geometry is also essential. Make sure you do (almost) all the exercises in every chapter. Don't just skim and memorize.

This is a lot of math to learn, but if you are determined enough you can probably master Calculus to Real Analysis, and that will give you a big head start and a deeper understanding of university-level physics.

Apostol and Spivak are the best calculus texts I know; paperback versions of each exist.

This should keep you busy, but I can suggest books in other areas if you want.

Math books:

Algebra: http://www.amazon.com/Algebra-I-M-Gelfand/dp/0817636773/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;s=books&amp;qid=1251516690&amp;sr=8

Calc: http://www.amazon.com/Calculus-4th-Michael-Spivak/dp/0914098918/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1356152827&amp;sr=1-1&amp;keywords=spivak+calculus

Calc: http://www.amazon.com/Linear-Algebra-Dover-Books-Mathematics/dp/048663518X

Linear algebra: http://www.amazon.com/Linear-Algebra-Modern-Introduction-CD-ROM/dp/0534998453/ref=sr_1_4?ie=UTF8&amp;s=books&amp;qid=1255703167&amp;sr=8-4

Linear algebra: http://www.amazon.com/Linear-Algebra-Dover-Mathematics-ebook/dp/B00A73IXRC/ref=zg_bs_158739011_2

Beginning physics:

http://www.amazon.com/Feynman-Lectures-Physics-boxed-set/dp/0465023827

Advanced stuff, if you make it through the beginning books:

E&M: http://www.amazon.com/Introduction-Electrodynamics-Edition-David-Griffiths/dp/0321856562/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1375653392&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=griffiths+electrodynamics

Mechanics: http://www.amazon.com/Classical-Dynamics-Particles-Systems-Thornton/dp/0534408966/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1375653415&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=marion+thornton

Quantum: http://www.amazon.com/Principles-Quantum-Mechanics-2nd-Edition/dp/0306447908/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1375653438&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=shankar

Cosmology -- these are both low level and low math, and you can probably handle them now:

http://www.amazon.com/Spacetime-Physics-Edwin-F-Taylor/dp/0716723271

http://www.amazon.com/The-First-Three-Minutes-Universe/dp/0465024378/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1356155850&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=the+first+three+minutes

Learning proofs can mean different things in different contexts. First, a few questions:

The sort of recommendations for a pre-university student are likely to be very different from those for a university student. For example, high school students have a number of mathematics competitions that you could consider (at least in The United States; the structure of opportunities is likely different in other countries). At the university level, you might want to look for something like a weekly problem solving seminar. These often have as their nominal goal preparing for the Putnam, which can often feel like a VERY ambitious way to learn proofs, akin to learning to swim by being thrown into a lake.

As a general rule, I'd say that working on proof-based contest questions that are

justbeyond the scope of what you think you can solve is probably a good initial source of problems. You don't want something so difficult that it's simply discouraging. Further, contest questions typically have solutions available, either in printed books or available somewhere online.This may be especially true for things like logic and

veryelementary set theory.Some recommendations will make a lot more sense if, for example, you have access to a quality university-level library, since you won't have to spend lots of money out-of-pocket to get copies of certain textbooks. (I'm limiting my recommendations to legally-obtained copies of textbooks and such.)

Imagine trying to learn a foreign language without being able to practice it with a fluent speaker, and without being able to get any feedback on how to improve things. You may well be able to learn how to do proofs on your own, but it's

orders of magnitudemore effective when you have someone who can guide you.rigorousmathematical proofs?Put differently, is your current goal to be able to produce a proof that will satisfy yourself, or to produce a proof that will satisfy someone

else?Have you had at least, for example, a geometry class that's proof-based?

Proofs are all about

communicating ideas. If you struggle with writing in complete, grammatically-correct sentences, then that will definitely be a bottleneck to your ability to make progress.---

With those caveats out of the way, let me make a few suggestions given what I think I can infer about where you in particular are right now.

How to Prove It: A Structured Approachby Daniel Velleman is a well-respected general introduction to ideas behind mathematical proof, as isHow to Solve It: A New Aspect of Mathematical Methodby George Pólya.Calculusby Michael Spivak. This is a challenging textbook, but there's a reason people have been recommending its different editions over many decades.writemathematically sound proofs, it helps toreadas many as you can find (at a level appropriate for your background and such). You can find plenty of examples in certain textbooks and other resources, and being able to work from templates of "good" proofs will help you immeasurably.Learning proofs is in many ways a skill that requires cultivation. Accordingly, you'll need to be patient and persistent, because proof-writing isn't a skill one typically can acquire passively.

---

How to improve at proofs is a big question beyond the scope of what I can answer in a single reddit comment. Nonetheless, I hope this helps point you in some useful directions. Good luck!

Textbooks (calculus): Fundamentals of Physics: http://www.amazon.com/Fundamentals-Physics-Extended-David-Halliday/dp/0470469080/ref=sr_1_4?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1398087387&amp;sr=8-4&amp;keywords=fundamentals+of+physics ,

Textbooks (calculus): University Physics with Modern Physics; http://www.amazon.com/University-Physics-Modern-12th-Edition/dp/0321501217/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1398087411&amp;sr=8-2&amp;keywords=university+physics+with+modern+physics

Textbook (algebra): [This is a great one if you don't know anything and want a book to self study from, after you finish this you can begin a calculus physics book like those listed above]: http://www.amazon.com/Physics-Principles-Applications-7th-Edition/dp/0321625927/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1398087498&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=physics+giancoli

If you want to be competitive at the international level, you definitely need calculus, at least the basics of it.

Here is a good book: http://www.amazon.com/Calculus-Intuitive-Physical-Approach-Mathematics/dp/0486404536/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1398087834&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=calculus+kline

It is quite cheap and easy to understand if you want to self teach yourself calculus.

Another option would be this book:http://www.amazon.com/Calculus-4th-Michael-Spivak/dp/0914098918/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1398087878&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=spivak

If you can finish self teaching that to yourself, you will be ready for anything that could face you in mathematics in university or the IPhO. (However it is a difficult book)

Problem books: Irodov; http://www.amazon.com/Problems-General-Physics-I-E-Irodov/dp/8183552153/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1398087565&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=irodov ,

Problem Books: Krotov; http://www.amazon.com/Science-Everyone-Aptitude-Problems-Physics/dp/8123904886/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1398087579&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=krotov

You should look for problem sets online after you have finished your textbook, those are the best recourses. You can get past contests from the physics olympiad websites.

http://www.amazon.com/Calculus-4th-Michael-Spivak/dp/0914098918/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1344481564&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=spivaks+calculus

I haven't read all of it, but even the bit I did read was very challenging and it is generally recommended around here for a rigorous introduction to calculus. Be warned, it is pretty challenging, especially if you aren't comfortable with proofs.

This is a compilation of what I gathered from reading on the internet about self-learning higher maths, I haven't come close to reading all this books or watching all this lectures, still I hope it helps you.

General Stuff:The books here deal with large parts of mathematics and are good to guide you through it all, but I recommend supplementing them with other books.

Linear Algebra: An extremelly versatile branch of Mathematics that can be applied to almost anything, also the first "real math" class in most universities.Calculus: The first mathematics course in most Colleges, deals with how functions change and has many applications, besides it's a doorway to Analysis.Real Analysis: More formalized calculus and math in general, one of the building blocks of modern mathematics.Abstract Algebra: One of the most important, and in my opinion fun, subjects in mathematics. Deals with algebraic structures, which are roughly sets with operations and properties of this operations.There are many other beautiful fields in math full of online resources, like Number Theory and Combinatorics, that I would like to put recommendations here, but it is quite late where I live and I learned those in weirder ways (through olympiad classes and problems), so I don't think I can help you with them, still you should do some research on this sub to get good recommendations on this topics and use the General books as guides.

Let me recommend Spivak,

Calculus.Might not be the type of ‘refresher’ you are looking for though.

From my experience, Calculus in America is taught in 2 different ways: rigorous/mathematical in nature like Calculus by Spivak and applied/simplified like the one by Larson.

Looking at the link, I dont think you need to know sets and math induction unless you are about to start learning Rigorous Calculus or Real Analysis. Also, real numbers are usually introduced in Real Analysis that comes after one's exposure to Applied/Non-Rigorous Calculus. Complex numbers are, I assume, needed in Complex Analysis that follows Real Analysis, so I wouldn't worry about sets, real/complex numbers beyond the very basics. Math induction is not needed in non-proof based/regular/non-rigorous Calculus.

From the link:

For Calc 1(applied)- again, in my experience, this is the bulk of what's usually tested in Calculus placement exams:Solving inequalities and equations

Properties of functions

Composite functions

Polynomial functions

Rational functions

Trigonometry

Trigonometric functions and their inverses

Trigonometric identities

Conic sections

Exponential functions

Logarithmic functions

For Calc 2(applied)- I think some Calc placement exams dont even contain problems related to the concepts below, but to be sure, you, probably, should know something about them:Sequences and series

Binomial theorem

In Calc 2(leading up to multivariate Calculus (Calc 3)). You can pick these topics up while studying pre-calc, but they are typically re-introduced in Calc 2 again:Vectors

Parametric equations

Polar coordinates

Matrices and determinants

As for limits, I dont think they are terribly important in pre-calc. I think, some pre-calc books include them just for good measure.

https://www.amazon.com/Calculus-4th-Michael-Spivak/dp/0914098918

If it helps, here are some free books to go through:

Linear Algebra Done Wrong

Paul's Online Math Notes (fantastic for Calc 1, 2, and 3)

Basic Analysis

Basic Analysis is pretty basic, so I'd recommend going through Rudin's book afterwards, as it's generally considered to be among the best analysis books ever written. If the price tag is too high, you can get the same book much cheaper, although with crappier paper and softcover via methods of questionable legality. Also because Rudin is so popular, you can find solutions online.

If you want something better than online notes for univariate Calculus, get Spivak's Calculus, as it'll walk you through single-variable Calculus using more theory than a standard math class. If you're able to get through that and Rudin, you should be good to go once you get good at linear algebra.

Here's my radical idea that might feel over-the-top and some here might disagree but I feel strongly about it:

In order to be a grad student in any 'mathematical science', it's highly recommended (by me) that you have the mathematical maturity of a graduated math major. That also means you have to think of yourself as two people, a mathematician, and a mathematical-scientist (machine-learner in your case).

AFAICT, your weekends, winter break and next summer are jam-packed if you prefer self-study. Or if you prefer classes then you get things done in fall, and spring.

Step 0 (prereqs): You should be comfortable with high-school math, plus calculus. Keep a calculus text handy (Stewart, old edition okay, or Thomas-Finney 9th edition) and read it, and solve some problem sets, if you need to review.

Step 0b: when you're doing this, forget about machine learning, and don't rush through this stuff. If you get stuck, seek help/discussion instead of moving on (I mean move on, attempt other problems, but don't forget to get unstuck). As a reminder, math is learnt by doing, not just reading. Resources:

## math on irc.freenode.net

Here are two possible routes, one minimal, one less-minimal:

Minimal

Less-minimal:

NOTE: this is pure math. I'm not aware of what additional material you'd need for machine-learning/statistical math. Therefore I'd suggest to skip the less-minimal route.

Hey y'all! I'm 16, and am about to finish Spivak's Calculus. Assuming that I know everything up to Algebra II, AP Statistics, Trigonometry, a bit of linear algebra (please specify if the subject requires extensive knowledge here), and have thoroughly gone through Spivak's Calculus, what should be the next thing I study? And what textbook(s) would you recommend for learning that subject?

Right now I'm leaning towards Real Analysis, or Multi Variable Calculus, or maybe Topology, or... case in point, I am very undecided and am in need of recommendations.

I have yet to read it myself, but the classic text for Calculus is Spivak's

Calculus. It is very highly recommended.If you're looking at it from a mathematical "I want to prove things" standpoint, I'd recommend Apostol. I've also heard good things about Spivak, although I've never read that book.

If you're looking at it from an engineering "Just tell me how to do the damn problem" perspective, I'm no help to you.

You do realize that there is guesswork but the extremes of the confidence interval are strictly positive right? In other words, no one is certain but what we are certain about is that optimum homework amount is

positive. Maybe it's 4 hours, maybe it's 50 hours. But it's definitely not 0.I don't like homework either when I was young. I dreaded it, and I skipped so many assignments, and I regularly skipped school. I hated school. In my senior year I had such severe senioritis that after I got accepted my grades basically crashed to D-ish levels. (By the way this isn't a good thing. It makes you lazy and trying to jumpstart again in your undergrad freshman year will feel like a huge, huge chore)

Now that I'm older I clearly see the benefits of homework. My advice to you is not to agree with me that homework is useful. My advice is to pursue your dreams, but when doing so be keenly aware of the pragmatical considerations. Theoretical physics demands a high level of understanding of theoretical mathematics: Lie groups, manifolds and differential algebraic topology, grad-level analysis, and so on. So get your arse and start studying math; you don't have to like your math homework, but you'd better be reading Spivak if you're truly serious about becoming a theoretical physicist. It's not easy. Life isn't easy. You want to be a theoretical physicist? Guess what, top PhD graduate programs often have acceptance rates

lowerthan Harvard, Yale, Stanford etc. You want to stand out? Well everyone wants to stand out. But for every 100 wannabe 15-year-old theoretical physicists out there, only 1 has actually started on that route, started studying first year theoretical mathematics (analysis, vector space), started reading research papers, started reallyknowingwhat it takes. Do you want to be that 1? If you don't want to do homework, fine; but you need to be doingworkthat allows you to reach your dreams.The popular opinion by some mathematical elite is that Stewart dumbs down calculus, focuses too much on applications, and not enough on theory, which is important for those moving beyond to real analysis and other upper division courses. You should read the reviews of Spivak's or Apostol's calculus text books to see what I mean.

Linear algebra is about is about linear functions and is typically taken in the first or second year of college. College algebra normally refers to a remedial class that covers what most people do in high school. I highly recommend watching this series of videos for getting an intuitive idea of linear algebra no matter what book you go with. The book you should use depends on how comfortable you are with proofs and what your goal is. If you just want to know how to calculate and apply it, I've heard Strang's book with the accompanying MIT opencourseware course is good. This book also looks good if you're mostly interested in programming applications. A more abstract book like Linear Algebra Done Right or Linear Algebra Done Wrong would probably be more useful if you were familiar with mathematical proofs beforehand. How to Prove it is a good choice for learning this.

I haven't seen boolean algebra used to refer to an entire course, but if you want to learn logic and some proof techniques you could look at How to Prove it.

Most calculus books cover both differential and integral calculus. Differential calculus refers to taking derivatives. A derivative essentially tells you how rapidly a function changes at a certain point. Integral calculus covers finding areas under curves(aka definite integrals) and their relationship with derivatives. This series gives some excellent explanations for most of the ideas in calculus.

Analysis is more advanced, and is typically only done by math majors. You can think of it as calculus with complete proofs for everything and more abstraction. I would not recommend trying to learn this without having a strong understanding of calculus first. Spivak's Calculus is a good compromise between full on analysis and a standard calculus class. It's possible to use this as a first exposure to calculus, but it would be difficult.

If you have a chance, I recommend checking out some textbooks on real analysis, which will guide you through the derivations and proofs of many theorems in calculus that you've thus far been expected to take for granted.

Some would recommend starting with Rudin's Principles of Mathematical Analysis, and it's certainly a text that I plan to read at some point. For your purposes, I might recommend Spivak's Calculus since it expects you to rigorously derive some of the most important results in calculus through proof-writing exercises. This was my first introduction to calculus during high-school. While it was overwhelming at first, it prepared me for some of my more advanced undergraduate courses (including real analysis and topology), and it seems to be best described as an advanced calculus textbook.

If you want to learn serious mathematics, start with a theoretical approach to calculus, then go into some analysis. Introductory Real Analysis by Kolmogorov is pretty good.

As far as how to think about these things, group theory is a strong start. "The real numbers are the unique linearly-ordered field with least upper bound property." Once you understand that sentence and can explain it in the context of group theory and the order topology, then you are in a good place to think about infinity, limits, etc.

Edit: For calc, Spivak is one of the textbooks I have heard is more common, but I have never used it so I can't comment on it. I've heard good things, though.

A harder analysis book for self-study would be Principles of Mathematical Analysis by Rudin. He is very terse in his proofs, so they can be hard to get through.

When I first started learning math on my own, I started learning calculus from something like this. Though I enjoyed it, it didn't really show me what 'real math' was like. For learning something closer to higher math, a more rigorous version would be something like this. It's all preference, though.

If you don't know much about calculus at all, start with the first one, and then work your way up to Spivak.

I am surprised no one has mentioned M. Spivak's very well known text Calculus. I thought this book was a pleasure to read. His writing was very fun and lighthearted and the book certainly teaches the material very well. In my opinion this is the best introductory calculus text there is.

Start with 3 Blue 1 Brown's Essence of Calculus Series - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WUvTyaaNkzM&list=PLZHQObOWTQDMsr9K-rj53DwVRMYO3t5Yr

and follow the following books -

Calculus by Spivak - https://www.amazon.com/Calculus-4th-Michael-Spivak/dp/0914098918

Calculus Made Easy - http://calculusmadeeasy.org/

Follow all the concepts and solve the examples and exercises.

Feel free to ask the questions here or in mathsoverflow.

Last but not the least, PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE........!

Proofs: Hammack's Book of Proof. Free and contains solutions to odd-numbered problems. Covers basic logic, set theory, combinatorics, and proof techniques. I think the third edition is perfect for someone who is familiar with calculus because it covers proofs in calculus (and analysis).

Calculus: Spivak's Calculus. A difficult but rewarding book on calculus that also introduces analysis. Good problems, and a solution manual is available. Another option is Apostol's Calculus which also covers linear algebra. Knowledge of proofs is recommended.

Number Theory: Hardy and Wright's An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers. As he explains in a foreword to the sixth edition, Andrew Wiles received this book from his teacher in high school and was a starting point for him. It also covers the zeta function. However, it may be too difficult for absolute beginners as it doesn't contain any problems. Another book is Stark's An Introduction to Number Theory which has a great section on continued fractions. You should have familiarity with proof before learning number theory.

I didn't mean to make it sound so serious :) However, stress, drinking, and insomnia can all have some unexpectedly large effects, so it may be worth dropping into a counseling session if your university has one.

In regards to math education and intuition, something I found very useful was to read some books that start from scratch, like Burn Math Class, or Spivak's calculus for a real challenge. You're at a point in your education where you have the sophistication to understand the foundations of math, so you can start to rebuild intuition about a lot of things that will make university-level math much more sensible.

i personally prefer Yurope! Hillary's Invasion. Very insightful reading.

For getting more intuition on proofs I would suggest the following book

http://www.amazon.com/Nuts-Bolts-Proofs-Third-Introduction/dp/0120885093/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1311007015&amp;sr=8-1

I think Rudin might be really tricky at your level, you can keep with it if you want, but I think Calculus by Michael Spivak would be much more approachable for you.

http://www.amazon.com/Calculus-4th-Michael-Spivak/dp/0914098918/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1311007057&amp;sr=1-1

I'll be working through Spivak's calculus for fun. Wish me luck!

Calculus - Michael Spivak

This is good advice. Source: I flunked a private engineering school at age 17, in spite of of being 99th percentile in the ACT. Reason? Besides socialization issues, poor mathematics and academic preparation at my rural high school, where few went to college, let alone out-of-state.

I'm a strong believer in self-education (and self-employment) and am currently rectifying the above-stated issues.

Came here to plug Spivak's

Calculus. It's a bit harder and more detailed than most calculus texts used today, but that's because he actually explains all the tricky bits, rather than just using hand-waving to finish those tricky bits. (It was the hand-waving that always left me confused in classroom teaching.) Spivak'sCalculusmight not be the place to start, but it's where you want to end up, so I want you to know about it.Peace out, bro, and keep working. We'll make it. ME/EE is a great combo, btw. ME is the first branch of engineering, though it was called something else, when "engines of war", catapaults and whatnot, was the only game in town. But, all machines need sensors, controls, and power, which is the EE bit. Put it together, and you get mechatronics, which is part of the future.

One piece of added advice: stick to one of the main-line branches of engineering: mechanical, electrical, chemical, maybe civil, instead of one of the new, hybrid branches, like biomedical, etc. The jobs are more plentiful, you'll get a sounder foundation in engineering principles, and specializing is still possible.

Ed: Do you already know about MIT's Open Course Ware site? Most MIT courses are online with videoed lectures, recommended textbooks, homework and tests. It's a great resource. They also have edX, a co-operative venture with a bunch of fancy schools.

I was an undergraduate majoring in mathematics. But due to health problems I am not attending any school currently. I have became unfamiliar with much of what I had learned/worked through when as an undergraduate. So I just genuinely wish and try to seriously re-study mathematics.

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Question about Spivak's Calculus and Ross' Elementary Classical Analysis:

Are they books treating mathematics on the same level? Do they treat the rigorous theoretical foundation and computational techniques equally well? Can each one be an alternative to the other? Could someone please give brief comparative reviews/comments on them?

This question is also on r/learnmath: HERE.

You'll remember and forget formulae as you use them. It's the using them that makes things concrete in your head.

Once you're comfortable with algebra, trig. I'm assuming you've had geometry, since you were taking algebra 2; if not, geometry as well.

Once you're comfortable with those topics, you'll have enough of the basics to start branching out. Calculus is one obvious direction; a lot people have recommended Spivak's book for that. Introductory statistics is another (far too few people are even basically statistically literate.) Discrete math is yet another possibility. You can also start playing with "problem math", like the Green Book or Red Book. Algebraic structures is yet another possibility (I found Herstein's abstract algebra book pretty easy to read when we used it in school).

Edit: added Amazon links.

You can start with Calculus by Spivak. If you're going to buy it then wait until after the Fall semester begins; the price is inflated right now because students need it for school.

This is a PDF of the third edition of the above book.

This is an excellent introduction to logic and proofs. You will want a strong understanding of how mathematicians communicate via proof and that book will really help.

The math subreddit is primarily undergrads talking about various topics. Make a point of just hanging out and reading stuff. If you don't understand something just tell us and they'll do their best to help out.

Hang out on the math stack exchange and ask questions about things you do not understand while trying to help with things you do understand.

Hope that helps!

I strongly suggest you take your time learning calculus, because anything you don't grasp completely will come back to haunt you.

But the good news is that there are lots of great resources you can use. MIT OCW has a full course with lectures, notes, and exams. Here are three free online books. If you're looking to buy a textbook, some good choices are Thomas, Stewart, and Spivak. (You can find dirt-cheap copies of older editions at abebooks.com.)

If you want more guidance, another great place to find it is at /r/learnmath.

I would highly advise going with the 31/37 route. As both of the above courses are proof based, they will be play an integral role in upper year courses. Please be warned that they are extremely challenging but worthwhile courses. I would highly recommend you start preparing for the above two courses. For A37, I would suggest starting with Spivak:

https://www.amazon.com/Calculus-4th-Michael-Spivak/dp/0914098918

None of the questions you asked is “silly” or “simple.” There’s a whole lot going on in calculus, most of which is typically explained in a real analysis course. Rigorous proofs of things like the mean value theorem or various forms of integration are challenging, but they will provide the clarity you’re looking for.

I recommend that you check out something like Spivak’s Calculus, which is going to give a more rigorous intro to the subject. Alternately, you can just find a good analysis or intro to proofs class somewhere. It’s a fascinating subject, so good luck!

No, he wrote a book on single-variable calculus, too: https://www.amazon.com/Calculus-4th-Michael-Spivak/dp/0914098918

You could try "Precalculus" by Stitz & Zeager. Chapters 10 and onwards is their Trigonometry book. This should be a very smooth book to work through.

Have you already picked out a Calculus textbook? Also, what are her plans as an MIT student? If she's going into engineering and the like, I would say Larson's "Calculus" (solutions manuals vol 1, 2) would be good enough.

If she plans on being a math student, though, I would say give her a a few months with Velleman's "How To Prove It". Afterwards, I can't recommend Spivak's Calculus (Answer Book) and Jim Hefferon's Linear Algebra (solutions manual on same page) enough. This is a good time to introduce mathematical rigor as a normal thing in mathematics because, really, this is what math is about.

If your Calculus is rusty before Rudin read Spivak Calculus it is great intro to analysis and you will get your calculus in order. Rudin is going to be overkill for you. Also before trying to do proofs read How to prove it It is a great crash course to naive set theory and proof strategies. And i promise i won't bore you with math any more.:D

Here are some books I'd recommend.

General BooksThese are general books that are more focused on proving things

per se. They'll use examples from basic set theory, geometry, and so on.Topical BooksFor learning topically, I'd suggest starting with a topic you're already familiar with or can become easily familiar with, and try to develop more rigor around it. For example, discrete math is a nice playground to learn about proving things because the topic is both deep and approachable by a beginning math student. Similarly, if you've taken AP or IB-level calculus then you'll get a lot of out a more rigorous treatment of calculus.

I have a special place in my hear for Spivak's Calculus, which I think is probably the best introduction out there to math-as-she-is-spoke. I used it for my first-year undergraduate calculus course and realized within the first week that the "math" I learned in high school — which I found tedious and rote — was not really math at all. The folks over at /r/calculusstudygroup are slowly working their way through it if you want to work alongside similarly motivated people.

General AdviceOne way to get accustomed to "proof" is to go back to, say, your Algebra II course in high school. Let's take something I'm sure you've memorized inside and out like the quadratic formula. Can you prove it?

I don't even mean derive it, necessarily. It's easy to check that the quadratic formula gives you two roots for the polynomial, but how do you know there aren't

otherroots? You're told that a quadratic polynomial has at most two distinct roots, a cubic polynomial has a most three, a quartic as most four, and perhaps even told that in general an n^(th) degree polynomial has at most n distinct roots.But how do you know? How do you know there's not a third root lurking out there somewhere?

To answer this you'll have to develop a deeper understanding of what polynomials really are, how you can manipulate them, how different properties of polynomials are affected by those manipulations, and so on.

Anyways, you can revisit pretty much any topic you want from high school and ask yourself, "But how do I really know?" That way rigor (and proofs) lie. :)

You could try Principles of mathematical analysis by Rudin. This is too much for me, so be warned.

I find Spivak's Calculus to be a lot more palatable, but I've read less of it than Rudin.

Most schools just use 1 textbook for calc 1-3 : http://www.amazon.com/Calculus-James-Stewart/dp/0538497815

Doesn't really matter which edition you get, you're still going to suffer through it.

A popular other book recommended by math majors/professors is

http://www.amazon.com/Calculus-4th-Michael-Spivak/dp/0914098918

You can get the pdf on "certain websites."

Videos will make you lazy and you will likely lose focus and turn to reddit or games or whatever because the professors can be really boring. Just stay focused on the text.

"Just do it."

Spivak's Calculus is a great resource that I used for a real analysis class. The first exercise is something on par with proving that 1+1=2 and it goes on to build all of Calculus from there.