# Reddit reviews: The best mathematics books

We found 7,687 Reddit comments discussing the best mathematics books. We ran sentiment analysis on each of these comments to determine how redditors feel about different products. We found 2,734 products and ranked them based on the amount of positive reactions they received. Here are the top 20.

### 1. How to Prove It: A Structured Approach, 2nd Edition

Sentiment score: 83

Number of reviews: 166

Cambridge University Press

### 2. Calculus, 4th edition

Sentiment score: 39

Number of reviews: 88

Used Book in Good Condition

### 3. A Book of Abstract Algebra: Second Edition (Dover Books on Mathematics)

Sentiment score: 36

Number of reviews: 68

Dover Publications

### 4. Discrete Mathematics with Applications

Sentiment score: 28

Number of reviews: 54

### 5. Secrets of Mental Math: The Mathemagician's Guide to Lightning Calculation and Amazing Math Tricks

Sentiment score: 26

Number of reviews: 55

Secrets of Mental Math The Mathemagician s Guide to Lightning Calculation and Amazing Math Tricks

### 6. Principles of Mathematical Analysis (International Series in Pure and Applied Mathematics)

Sentiment score: 23

Number of reviews: 71

McGraw-Hill Science Engineering Math

### 7. Linear Algebra Done Right (Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics)

Sentiment score: 21

Number of reviews: 36

### 9. Fermat's Enigma: The Epic Quest to Solve the World's Greatest Mathematical Problem

Sentiment score: 19

Number of reviews: 25

### 11. Probability Theory: The Logic of Science

Sentiment score: 17

Number of reviews: 48

Used Book in Good Condition

### 12. Mathematics: Its Content, Methods and Meaning (3 Volumes in One)

Sentiment score: 16

Number of reviews: 39

### 13. How to Solve It: A New Aspect of Mathematical Method (Princeton Science Library)

Sentiment score: 16

Number of reviews: 34

MATHEMATICAL METHOD

### 15. Mathematical Proofs: A Transition to Advanced Mathematics (3rd Edition) (Featured Titles for Transition to Advanced Mathematics)

Sentiment score: 15

Number of reviews: 26

Used Book in Good Condition

### 16. Div, Grad, Curl, and All That: An Informal Text on Vector Calculus (Fourth Edition)

Sentiment score: 14

Number of reviews: 35

### 17. What Is Mathematics? An Elementary Approach to Ideas and Methods

Sentiment score: 14

Number of reviews: 32

Oxford University Press USA

This is a compilation of what I gathered from reading on the internet about self-learning higher maths, I haven't come close to reading all this books or watching all this lectures, still I hope it helps you.

General Stuff:The books here deal with large parts of mathematics and are good to guide you through it all, but I recommend supplementing them with other books.

Linear Algebra: An extremelly versatile branch of Mathematics that can be applied to almost anything, also the first "real math" class in most universities.Calculus: The first mathematics course in most Colleges, deals with how functions change and has many applications, besides it's a doorway to Analysis.Real Analysis: More formalized calculus and math in general, one of the building blocks of modern mathematics.Abstract Algebra: One of the most important, and in my opinion fun, subjects in mathematics. Deals with algebraic structures, which are roughly sets with operations and properties of this operations.There are many other beautiful fields in math full of online resources, like Number Theory and Combinatorics, that I would like to put recommendations here, but it is quite late where I live and I learned those in weirder ways (through olympiad classes and problems), so I don't think I can help you with them, still you should do some research on this sub to get good recommendations on this topics and use the General books as guides.

I hope I am not too late.

You can post this to /r/suicidewatch.

Here is my half-baked attempt at providing you with some answers.

First of all let's see, what is the problem? Money and women. This sounds rather stereotypical but it became a stereotype because a lot of people had this kind of problems. So if you are bad at money and at women, join the club, everybody sucks at this.

Now, there are a few strategies of coping with this. I can tell you what worked for me and perhaps that will help you too.

I guess if there is only one thing that I would change in your attitude that would improve anything is learning the fact that "there is more where that came from". This is really important in girl problems and in money problems.

When you are speaking with a girl, I noticed that early on, men tend to start being very submissive and immature in a way. They start to offer her all the decision power because they are afraid not to lose her. This is a somehow normal response but it affects the relationship negatively. She sees you as lacking power and confidence and she shall grow cold. So here lies the strange balance between good and bad: you have to be powerful but also warm and magnanimous. You can only do this by experimenting without fearing the results of your actions. Even if the worst comes to happen, and she breaks up with you .... you'll always get a better option. There are 3.5 billion ladies on the planet. The statistics are skewed in your favor.

Now for the money issue. Again, there is more where that came from. The money, are a relatively recent invention. Our society is built upon them but we survived for 3 million years without them. The thing you need to learn is that your survival isn't directly related to money. You can always get food, shelter and a lot of other stuff for free. You won't live the good life, but you won't die. So why the anxiety then?

Question: It seems to me you are talking out of your ass. How do I put into practice this in order to get a girlfriend?

Answer: Talk to people. Male and female. Make the following your goals:

Talk to 1 girl each day for one month.

Meet a few friends each 3 days.

Make a new friend each two weeks.

Post your romantic encounters in /r/seduction.

This activities will add up after some time and you will have enough social skill to attract a female. You will understand what your female friend is thinking. Don't feel too bad if it doesn't work out.

Question: The above doesn't give a lot of practical advice on getting money. I want more of that. How do I get it?

Answer: To give you money people need to care about you. People only care about you when you care about them. This is why you need to do the following:

Start solving hard problems.

Start helping people.

Problems aren't only school problems. They refer to anything: start learning a new difficult subject (for example start learning physics or start playing an instrument or start writing a novel). Take up a really difficult project that is just above the verge of what you think you are able to do. Helping people is something more difficult and personal. You can work for charity, help your family members around the house and other similar.

Question: I don't understand. I have problems and you are asking me to work for charity, donate money? How can giving money solve anything?

Answer: If you don't give, how can you receive? Helping others is instilling a sense of purpose in a very strange way. You become superior to others by helping them in a dispassionate way.

Question: I feel like I am going to cry, you are making fun of me!

Answer: Not entirely untrue. But this is not the problem. The problem is that you are taking yourself too serious. We all are, and I have similar problems. The true mark of a person of genius is to laugh at himself. Cultivate your sense of humor in any manner you can.

Question: What does it matter then if I choose to kill myself?

Answer: There is this really good anecdote about Thales of Miletus (search wiki). He was preaching that there is no difference between life and death. His friends asked him: If there is no difference, why don't you kill yourself. At this, he instantly answered: I don't kill myself because there is no difference.

Question: Even if I would like to change and do the things you want me to do, human nature is faulty. It is certain that I would have relapses. How do I snap out of it?

Answer: There are five habits that you should instill that will keep bad emotions away. Either of this habits has its own benefits and drawbacks:

Question: Your post seems somewhat interesting but more in an intriguing kind of way. I would like to know more.

Answer: There are a few good books on these subjects. I don't expect you to read all of them, but consider them at least.

For general mental change over I recommend this:

http://www.amazon.com/Learned-Optimism-Change-Your-Mind/dp/1400078393/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1324795853&amp;sr=8-1

http://www.amazon.com/Generous-Man-Helping-Others-Sexiest/dp/1560257288

For girl issues I recommend the following book. This will open up a whole bag of worms and you will have an entire literature to pick from. This is not going to be easy. Remember though, difficult is good for you.

http://www.amazon.com/GAME-UNDERCOVER-SOCIETY-PICK-UP-ARTISTS/dp/1841957518/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1324795664&amp;sr=8-1 (lately it is popular to dish this book for a number of reasons. Read it and decide for yourself. There is a lot of truth in it)

Regarding money problem, the first thing is to learn to solve problems. The following is the best in my opinion

http://www.amazon.com/How-Solve-Mathematical-Princeton-Science/dp/069111966X

The second thing about money is to understand why our culture seems wrong and you don't seem to have enough. This will make you a bit more comfortable when you don't have money.

http://www.amazon.com/Story-B-Daniel-Quinn/dp/0553379011/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1324795746&amp;sr=8-3 (this one has a prequel called Ishmael. which people usually like better. This one is more to my liking.)

For mental contemplation there are two recommendations:

http://www.urbandharma.org/udharma4/mpe.html . This one is for meditation purposes.

http://www.amazon.com/Way-Pilgrim-Continues-His/dp/0060630175 . This one is if you want to learn how to pray. I am an orthodox Christian and this is what worked for me. I cannot recommend things I didn't try.

For exercising I found bodyweight exercising to be one of the best for me. I will recommend only from this area. Of course, you can take up weights or whatever.

http://www.amazon.com/Convict-Conditioning-Weakness-Survival-Strength/dp/0938045768/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1324795875&amp;sr=8-1 (this is what I use and I am rather happy with it. A lot of people recommend this one instead: http://www.rosstraining.com/nevergymless.html )

Regarding friends, the following is the best bang for your bucks:

http://www.amazon.com/How-Win-Friends-Influence-People/dp/1439167346/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1324796461&amp;sr=8-1 (again, lots of criticism, but lots of praise too)

The rest of the points are addressed in the above books. I haven't given any book on financial advices. Once you know how to solve problems and use google and try to help people money will start coming, don't worry.

I hope this post helps you, even though it is a bit long and cynical.

Merry Christmas!

> I assume I ought to check it out after my discrete math class? Or does CLRS teach the proofs as if the reader has no background knowledge about proofs?

Sadly it does not teach proofs. You will need to substitute this on your own. You don't need deep proof knowledge, but just the ability to

followa proof, even if it means you have to sit there for 2-3 minutes on one sentence just to understand it (which becomes much easier as you do more of this).> We didn't do proof by induction, though I have learned a small (very small) amount of it through reading a book called Essentials of Computer Programs by Haynes, Wand, and Friedman. But I don't really count that as "learning it," more so being exposed to the idea of it.

This is better than nothing, however I recommend you get very comfortable with it because it's a cornerstone of proofs. For example, can you prove that there are less than 2 ^ (h+1) nodes in any perfect binary tree of height h? Things like that.

> We did go over Delta Epsilon, but nothing in great detail (unless you count things like finding the delta or epsilon in a certain equation). If it helps give you a better understanding, the curriculum consisted of things like derivatives, integrals, optimization, related rates, rotating a graph around the x/y-axis or a line, linearization, Newton's Method, and a few others I'm forgetting right now. Though we never proved why any of it could work, we were just taught the material. Which I don't disagree with since, given the fact that it's a general Calc 1 course, so some if not most students aren't going to be using the proofs for such topics later in life.

That's okay, you will need to be able to do calculations too. There are people who spend all their time doing proofs and then for some odd reason can't even do basic integration. Being able to do both is important. Plus this knowledge will make dealing with other math concepts easier. It's good.

> I can completely understand that. I myself want to be as prepared as possible, even if it means going out and learning about proofs of Calc 1 topics if it helps me become a better computer scientist. I just hope that's a last resort, and my uni can at least provide foundation for such areas.

In my honest opinion, a lot of people put too much weight on calculus. Computer science is very much in line with discrete math. The areas where it gets more 'real numbery' is when you get into numerical methods, machine learning, graphics, etc. Anything related to theory of computation will probably be discrete math. If your goal is to get good at data structures and algorithms, most of your time will be spent on discrete topics. You don't

needto be a discrete math genius to do this stuff, all you need is some discrete math, some calc (which you already have), induction, and the rest you can pick up as you go.If you want to be the best you can be, I recommend trying that book I linked first to get your feet wet. After that, try CLRS. Then try TAOCP.

Do not however throw away the practical side of CS if you want to get into industry. Reading TAOCP would make you really good but it doesn't mean shit if you can't program. Even the author of TAOCP, Knuth, says being polarized completely one way (all theory, or all programming, and none of the other) is not good.

> From reading ahead in your post, is Skiena's Manual something worth investing to hone my skills in topics like proof skills? I'll probably pick it up eventually since I've heard nothing but good things about it, but still. Does Skiena's Manual teach proofing skills to those without them/are not good at them? Or is there a separate book for that?

You could, at worst you will get a deeper understanding of the data structure and how to implement them if the proof goes over your head... which is okay, no one on this planet starts off good at this stuff. After you do this for a year you will be able to probably sit down and casually read the proofs in these books (or that is how long it took me).

Overall his book is the best because it's the most fun to read (CLRS is sadly dry), and TAOCP may be overkill right now. There are probably other good books too.

> I guess going off of that, does one need a certain background to be able to do proofs correctly/successfully, such as having completed a certain level of math or having a certain mindset?

This is developed over time. You will struggle... trust me. There will be days where you feel like you're useless but it continues growing over a month. Try to do a proof a day and give yourself 20-30 minutes to think about things. Don't try insane stuff cause you'll only demoralize yourself. If you want a good start, this is a book a lot of myself and my classmates started on. If you've never done formal proofs before, you will experience exactly what I said about choking on these problems. Don't give up. I don't know anyone who had never done proofs before and didn't struggle like mad for the first and second chapter.

> I mean, I like the material I'm learning and doing programming, and I think I'd like to do at least be above average (as evident by the fact that I'm going out of my way to study ahead and read in my free time). But I have no clue if I'll like discrete math/proving things, or if TAOCP will be right for me.

Most people end up having to do proofs and are forced to because of their curriculum. They would struggle and quit otherwise, but because they have to know it they go ahead with it anyways. After their hard work they realize how important it is, but this is not something you can experience until you get there.

I would say if you have classes coming up that deal with proofs, let them teach you it and enjoy the vacation. If you really want to get a head start, learning proofs will put you on par with top university courses. For example at mine, you were doing proofs from the very beginning, and pretty much all the core courses are proofs. I realized you can tell the quality of a a university by how much proofs are in their curriculum. Any that is about programming or just doing number crunching is

literallymissing the whole point of ComputerScience.Because of all the proofs I have done, eventually you learn forever how a data structure works and why, and can use it to solve other problems. This is something that my non-CS programmers do not understand and I will always absolutely crush them on (novel thinking) because its what a proper CS degree teaches you how to do.

There is a lot I could talk about here, but maybe such discussions are better left for PM.

My main hobby is reading textbooks, so I decided to go beyond the scope of the question posed. I took a look at what I have on my shelves in order to recommend particularly good or standard books that I think could characterize large portions of an undergraduate degree and perhaps the beginnings of a graduate degree in the main fields that interest me, plus some personal favorites.

Neuroscience: Theoretical Neuroscience is a good book for the field of that name, though it does require background knowledge in neuroscience (for which, as others mentioned, Kandel's text is excellent, not to mention that it alone can cover the majority of an undergraduate degree in neuroscience if corequisite classes such as biology and chemistry are momentarily ignored) and in differential equations. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory and Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology were used in my classes on cognition and learning/memory and I enjoyed both; though they tend to choose breadth over depth, all references are research papers and thus one can easily choose to go more in depth in any relevant topics by consulting these books' bibliographies.General chemistry, organic chemistry/synthesis: I liked Linus Pauling's General Chemistry more than whatever my school gave us for general chemistry. I liked this undergraduate organic chemistry book, though I should say that I have little exposure to other organic chemistry books, and I found Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis to be very informative and useful. Unfortunately, I didn't have time to take instrumental/analytical/inorganic/physical chemistry and so have no idea what to recommend there.Biochemistry: Lehninger is the standard text, though it's rather expensive. I have limited exposure here.Mathematics: When I was younger (i.e. before having learned calculus), I found the four-volume The World of Mathematics great for introducing me to a lot of new concepts and branches of mathematics and for inspiring interest; I would strongly recommend this collection to anyone interested in mathematics and especially to people considering choosing to major in math as an undergrad. I found the trio of Spivak's Calculus (which Amazon says is now unfortunately out of print), Stewart's Calculus (standard text), and Kline's Calculus: An Intuitive and Physical Approach to be a good combination of rigor, practical application, and physical intuition, respectively, for calculus. My school used Marsden and Hoffman's Elementary Classical Analysis for introductory analysis (which is the field that develops and proves the calculus taught in high school), but I liked Rudin's Principles of Mathematical Analysis (nicknamed "Baby Rudin") better. I haven't worked my way though Munkres' Topology yet, but it's great so far and is often recommended as a standard beginning toplogy text. I haven't found books on differential equations or on linear algebra that I've really liked. I randomly came across Quine's Set Theory and its Logic, which I thought was an excellent introduction to set theory. Russell and Whitehead's Principia Mathematica is a very famous text, but I haven't gotten hold of a copy yet. Lang's Algebra is an excellent abstract algebra textbook, though it's rather sophisticated and I've gotten through only a small portion of it as I don't plan on getting a PhD in that subject.Computer Science: For artificial intelligence and related areas, Russell and Norvig's Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach's text is a standard and good text, and I also liked Introduction to Information Retrieval (which is available online by chapter and entirely). For processor design, I found Computer Organization and Design to be a good introduction. I don't have any recommendations for specific programming languages as I find self-teaching to be most important there, nor do I know of any data structures books that I found to be memorable (not that I've really looked, given the wealth of information online). Knuth's The Art of Computer Programming is considered to be a gold standard text for algorithms, but I haven't secured a copy yet.Physics: For basic undergraduate physics (mechanics, e&m, and a smattering of other subjects), I liked Fundamentals of Physics. I liked Rindler's Essential Relativity and Messiah's Quantum Mechanics much better than whatever books my school used. I appreciated the exposition and style of Rindler's text. I understand that some of the later chapters of Messiah's text are now obsolete, but the rest of the book is good enough for you to not need to reference many other books. I have little exposure to books on other areas of physics and am sure that there are many others in this subreddit that can give excellent recommendations.Other: I liked Early Theories of the Universe to be good light historical reading. I also think that everyone should read Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.You are in a very special position right now where many interesing fields of mathematics are suddenly accessible to you. There are many directions you could head. If your experience is limited to calculus, some of these may look very strange indeed, and perhaps that is enticing. That was certainly the case for me.

Here are a few subject areas in which you may be interested. I'll link you to Dover books on the topics, which are always cheap and generally good.

incredible. The author asks questions in such a way that, after answering them, you can't help but generalize your answers to larger problems. This book really teaches you to think mathematically.Basically, don't limit yourself to the track you see before you. Explore and enjoy.

Your mileage with certifications may vary depending on your geographical area and type of IT work you want to get into. No idea about Phoenix specifically.

For programming work, generally certifications aren't looked at highly, and so you should think about how much actual programming you want to do vs. something else, before investing in training that employers may not give a shit about at all.

The more your goals align with programming, the more you'll want to acquire practical skills and be able to demonstrate them.

I'd suggest reading the FAQ first, and then doing some digging to figure out what's out there that interests you. Then, consider trying to get in touch with professionals in the specific domain you're interested in, and/or ask more specific questions on here or elsewhere that pertain to what you're interested in. Then figure out a plan of attack and get to it.

A lot of programming work boils down to:

Using appropriate data structures, and algorithms (often hidden behind standard libraries/frameworks as black boxes), that help you solve whatever problems you run into, or tasks you need to complete. Knowing when to use a Map vs. a List/Array, for example, is fundamental.Basic logic, as well assystems designandOOD(and a sprinkle of FP for perspective on how to write code with reliable data flows and cohesion), is essential.As a basic primer, you might want to look at Code for a big picture view of what's going with computers.

For basic logic skills, the first two chapters of How to Prove It are great. Being able to think about conditional expressions symbolically (and not get confused by your own code) is a useful skill. Sometimes business requirements change and require you to modify conditional statements. With an understanding of Boolean Algebra, you will make fewer mistakes and get past this common hurdle sooner. Lots of beginners struggle with logic early on while also learning a language, framework, and whatever else. Luckily, Boolean Algebra is a tiny topic. Those first two chapters pretty much cover the core concepts of logic that I saw over and over again in various courses in college (programming courses, algorithms, digital circuits, etc.)

Once you figure out a domain/industry you're interested in, I highly recommend focusing on one general purpose programming language that is popular in that domain. Learn about data structures and learn how to use the language to solve problems using data structures. Try not to spread yourself too thin with learning languages. It's more important to focus on learning how to get the computer to do your bidding via one set of tools - later on, once you have that context, you can experiment with other things. It's not a bad idea to learn multiple languages, since in some cases they push drastically different philosophies and practices, but give it time and stay focused early on.

As you gain confidence there, identify a simple project you can take on that uses that general purpose language, and perhaps a development framework that is popular in your target industry. Read up on best practices, and stick to a small set of features that helps you complete your mini project.

When learning, try to avoid haplessly jumping from tutorial to tutorial if it means that it's an opportunity to better understand something you really should understand from the ground up. Don't try to understand everything under the sun from the ground up, but don't shy away from 1st party sources of information when you need them. E.g. for iOS development, Apple has a lot of development guides that aren't too terrible. Sometimes these guides will clue you into patterns, best practices, pitfalls.

Imperfect solutions are fine while learning via small projects. Focus on completing tiny projects that are just barely outside your skill level. It can be hard to gauge this yourself, but if you ever went to college then you probably have an idea of what this means.

The feedback cycle in software development is long, so you want to be unafraid to make mistakes, and prioritize finishing stuff so that you can reflect on what to improve.

Hello! I'm interested in trying to cultivate a better understanding/interest/mastery of mathematics for myself. For some context:

&nbsp;

To be frank, Math has always been my least favorite subject. I do love learning, and my primary interests are Animation, Literature, History, Philosophy, Politics, Ecology & Biology. (I'm a Digital Media Major with an Evolutionary Biology minor) Throughout highschool I started off in the "honors" section with Algebra I, Geometry, and Algebra II. (Although, it was a small school, most of the really "excelling" students either doubled up with Geometry early on or qualified to skip Algebra I, meaning that most of the students I was around - as per Honors English, Bio, etc - were taking Math courses a grade ahead of me, taking Algebra II while I took Geometry, Pre-Calc while I took Algebra II, and AP/BC Calc/Calc I while I took Pre-Calc)

By my senior year though, I took a level down, and took Pre-Calculus in the "advanced" level. Not the lowest, that would be "College Prep," (man, Honors, Advanced, and College Prep - those are some really condescending names lol - of course in Junior & Senior year the APs open up, so all the kids who were in Honors went on to APs, and Honors became a bit lower in standard from that point on) but since I had never been doing great in Math I decided to take it a bit easier as I focused on other things.

So my point is, throughout High School I never really grappled with Math outside of necessity for completing courses, I never did all that well (I mean, grade-wise I was fine, Cs, Bs and occasional As) and pretty much forgot much of it after I needed to.

Currently I'm a sophmore in University. For my first year I kinda skirted around taking Math, since I had never done that well & hadn't enjoyed it much, so I wound up taking Statistics second semester of freshman year. I did okay, I got a C+ which is one of my worse grades, but considering my skills in the subject was acceptable. My professor was well-meaning and helpful outside of classes, but she had a very thick accent & I was very distracted for much of that semester.

Now this semester I'm taking Applied Finite Mathematics, and am doing alright. Much of the content so far has been a retread, but that's fine for me since I forgot most of the stuff & the presentation is far better this time, it's sinking in quite a bit easier. So far we've been going over the basics of Set Theory, Probability, Permutations, and some other stuff - kinda slowly tbh.

&nbsp;

Well that was quite a bit of a preamble, tl;dr I was never all that good at or interested in math. However, I want to foster a healthier engagement with mathematics and so far have found entrance points of interest in discussions on the history and philosophy of mathematics. I think I could come to a better understanding and maybe even appreciation for math if I studied it on my own in some fashion.

So I've been looking into it, and I see that Dover publishes quite a range of affordable, slightly old math textbooks. Now, considering my background, (I am probably quite rusty but somewhat secure in Elementary Algebra, and to be honest I would not trust anything I could vaguely remember from 2 years ago in "Advanced" Pre-Calculus) what would be a good book to try and read/practice with/work through to make math 1) more approachable to me, 2) get a better and more rewarding understanding by attacking the stuff on my own, and/or 3) broaden my knowledge and ability in various math subjects?

Here are some interesting ones I've found via cursory search, I've so far just been looking at Dover's selections but feel free to recommend other stuff, just keep in mind I'd have to keep a rather small budget, especially since this is really on the side (considering my course of study, I really won't have to take any more math courses):

Prelude to Mathematics

A Book of Set Theory - More relevant to my current course & have heard good things about it

Linear Algebra

Number Theory

A Book of Abstract Algebra

Basic Algebra I

Calculus: An Intuitive and Physical Approach

Probability Theory: A Concise Course

A Course on Group Theory

Elementary Functional Analysis

Imagine you have a dataset without labels, but you want to solve a supervised problem with it, so you're going to try to collect labels. Let's say they are pictures of dogs and cats and you want to create labels to classify them.

One thing you could do is the following process:

(I'm ignoring problems like pictures that are difficult to classify or lazy or adversarial humans giving you noisy labels)

That's one way to do it, but is it the most efficient way? Imagine all your pictures are from only 10 cats and 10 dogs. Suppose they are sorted by individual. When you label the first picture, you get some information about the problem of classifying cats and dogs. When you label another picture of the same cat, you gain less information. When you label the 1238th picture from the same cat you probably get almost no information at all. So, to optimize your time, you should probably label pictures from other individuals before you get to the 1238th picture.

How do you learn to do that in a principled way?

Active Learning is a task where instead of first labeling the data and then learning a model, you do both simultaneously, and at each step you have a way to ask the model which next example should you manually classify for it to learn the most. You can than stop when you're already satisfied with the results.

You could think of it as a reinforcement learning task where the reward is how much you'll learn for each label you acquire.

The reason why, as a Bayesian, I like active learning, is the fact that there's a very old literature in Bayesian inference about what they call Experiment Design.

Experiment Design is the following problem: suppose I have a physical model about some physical system, and I want to do some measurements to obtain information about the models parameters. Those measurements typically have control variables that I must set, right? What are the settings for those controls that, if I take measurements on that settings, will give the most information about the parameters?

As an example: suppose I have an electric motor, and I know that its angular speed depends only on the electric tension applied on the terminals. And I happen to have a good model for it: it grows linearly up to a given value, and then it becomes constant. This model has two parameters: the slope of the linear growth and the point where it becomes constant. The first looks easy to determine, the second is a lot more difficult. I'm going to measure the angular speed at a bunch of different voltages to determine those two parameters. The set of voltages I'm going to measure at is my control variable. So, Experiment Design is a set of techniques to tell me what voltages I should measure at to learn the most about the value of the parameters.

I could do Bayesian Iterated Experiment Design. I have an initial prior distribution over the parameters, and use it to find the best voltage to measure at. I then use the measured angular velocity to update my distribution over the parameters, and use this new distribution to determine the next voltage to measure at, and so on.

How do I determine the next voltage to measure at? I have to have a loss function somehow. One possible loss function is the expected value of how much the accuracy of my physical model will increase if I measure the angular velocity at a voltage V, and use it as a new point to adjust the model. Another possible loss function is how much I expect the entropy of my distribution over parameters to decrease after measuring at V (the conditional mutual information between the parameters and the measurement at V).

Active Learning is just iterated experiment design for building datasets. The control variable is which example to label next and the loss function is the negative expected increase in the performance of the model.

So, now your procedure could be:

Or you could be a lot more clever than that and use proper reinforcement learning algorithms. Or you could be even more clever and use "model-independent" (not really...) rewards like the mutual information, so that you don't over-optimize the resulting data set for a single choice of model.

I bet you have a lot of concerns about how to do this properly, how to avoid overfitting, how to have a proper train-validation-holdout sets for cross validation, etc, etc, and those are all valid concerns for which there are answers. But this is the gist of the procedure.

You could do Active Learning and iterated experiment design without ever hearing about bayesian inference. It's just that those problems are natural to frame if you use bayesian inference and information theory.

About the jargon, there's no way to understand it without studying bayesian inference and machine learning in this bayesian perspective. I suggest a few books:

Is a pretty good introduction to Information Theory and bayesian inference, and how it relates to machine learning. The Machine Learning part might be too introductory if already know and use ML.

Some people don't like this book, and I can see why, but if you want to learn how bayesians think about ML, it is the most comprehensive book I think.

More of a philosophical book. This is a good book to understand what bayesians find so awesome about bayesian inference, and how they think about problems. It's not a book to take too seriously though. Jaynes was a very idiosyncratic thinker and the tone of some of the later chapters is very argumentative and defensive. Some would even say borderline crackpot. Read the chapter about plausible reasoning, and if that doesn't make you say "Oh, that's kind of interesting...", than nevermind. You'll never be convinced of this bayesian crap.

Sounds like you are about 4 years behind me (Future physics PhD candidate). Glad to know you have discovered Dover books, they really are great and so cheap. It also sounds like you know what you're doing so good job, keep at it and you might make a good case for graduate school (if that's your destination). But I will warn you that upper division mathematics courses are different. I have seen so many people who think they are really great at mathematics up to vector calculus and then get completely shit on by more abstract courses like real analysis, abstract algebra and topology. The reason for this is that it requires more formalism and is very rigorous as far as proofs go. You'll eventually learn that math is all about making sure you have checked every possible condition in order to move on. I think something you will need is mathematical logic before you tackle abstract courses. If you do collect textbooks (like I do) then I would also recommend this textbook. It teaches you how to think like a mathematician and the logic behind proofs. I think a mathematics logic course is essential to students and it's a shame many mathematics students don't go through a formal logic course before they tackle advanced courses. Of course, some don't need it but unless you are brilliant, I would recommend it (Even if you are brilliant it would be a easy read). Just dig deep and focus and good luck with your future work. Mathematics and Physics are two beautiful subjects and it's always great to talk to future mathematicians or physicists(or any aspiring scientist in that case!) and help them get inspired or motivated!

P.S. Funny story, I had a friend who thought it would be funny to make people believe that Euler is pronounce "you-ler" with the argument that Euclid is pronounced "you-clid". It was pretty funny seeing people believe him.

I started from scratch on the formal CS side, with an emphasis on program analysis, and taught myself the following starting from 2007. If you're in the United States, I recommend BookFinder to save money buying these things used.

On the CS side:

On the math side, I was advantaged in that I did my undergraduate degree in the subject. Here's what I can recommend, given five years' worth of hindsight studying program analysis:

Final bit of advice: you'll notice that I heavily stuck to textbooks and Ph.D. theses in the above list. I find that jumping straight into the research literature without a foundational grounding is perhaps the most ill-advised mistake one can make intellectually. To whatever extent that what you're interested in is systematized -- that is, covered in a textbook or thesis already, you should read it before digging into the research literature. Otherwise, you'll be the proverbial blind man with the elephant, groping around in the dark, getting bits and pieces of the picture without understanding how it all forms a cohesive whole. I made that mistake and it cost me a lot of time; don't do the same.

Learning proofs can mean different things in different contexts. First, a few questions:

The sort of recommendations for a pre-university student are likely to be very different from those for a university student. For example, high school students have a number of mathematics competitions that you could consider (at least in The United States; the structure of opportunities is likely different in other countries). At the university level, you might want to look for something like a weekly problem solving seminar. These often have as their nominal goal preparing for the Putnam, which can often feel like a VERY ambitious way to learn proofs, akin to learning to swim by being thrown into a lake.

As a general rule, I'd say that working on proof-based contest questions that are

justbeyond the scope of what you think you can solve is probably a good initial source of problems. You don't want something so difficult that it's simply discouraging. Further, contest questions typically have solutions available, either in printed books or available somewhere online.This may be especially true for things like logic and

veryelementary set theory.Some recommendations will make a lot more sense if, for example, you have access to a quality university-level library, since you won't have to spend lots of money out-of-pocket to get copies of certain textbooks. (I'm limiting my recommendations to legally-obtained copies of textbooks and such.)

Imagine trying to learn a foreign language without being able to practice it with a fluent speaker, and without being able to get any feedback on how to improve things. You may well be able to learn how to do proofs on your own, but it's

orders of magnitudemore effective when you have someone who can guide you.rigorousmathematical proofs?Put differently, is your current goal to be able to produce a proof that will satisfy yourself, or to produce a proof that will satisfy someone

else?Have you had at least, for example, a geometry class that's proof-based?

Proofs are all about

communicating ideas. If you struggle with writing in complete, grammatically-correct sentences, then that will definitely be a bottleneck to your ability to make progress.---

With those caveats out of the way, let me make a few suggestions given what I think I can infer about where you in particular are right now.

How to Prove It: A Structured Approachby Daniel Velleman is a well-respected general introduction to ideas behind mathematical proof, as isHow to Solve It: A New Aspect of Mathematical Methodby George Pólya.Calculusby Michael Spivak. This is a challenging textbook, but there's a reason people have been recommending its different editions over many decades.writemathematically sound proofs, it helps toreadas many as you can find (at a level appropriate for your background and such). You can find plenty of examples in certain textbooks and other resources, and being able to work from templates of "good" proofs will help you immeasurably.Learning proofs is in many ways a skill that requires cultivation. Accordingly, you'll need to be patient and persistent, because proof-writing isn't a skill one typically can acquire passively.

---

How to improve at proofs is a big question beyond the scope of what I can answer in a single reddit comment. Nonetheless, I hope this helps point you in some useful directions. Good luck!

There would have been a time that I would have suggested getting a curriculum

text book and going through that, but if you're doing this for independent work

I wouldn't really suggest that as the odds are you're not going to be using a

very good source.

Going on the typical

Arithmetic > Algebra > Calculus

****## Arithmetic

Arithmetic refresher. Lots of stuff in here - not easy.

I think you'd be set after this really. It's a pretty terse text in general.

*

****## Algebra

Algebra by Chrystal Part I

Algebra by Chrystal Part II

You can get both of these algebra texts online easily and freely from the search

`chrystal algebra part I filetype:pdf`

`chrystal algebra part II filetype:pdf`

I think that you could get the first (arithmetic) text as well, personally I

prefer having actual books for working. They're also valuable for future

reference. This

`filetype:pdf`

search should be remembered and used liberallyfor finding things such as worksheets etc (eg

`trigonometry worksheet<br /> filetype:pdf`

for a search...).Algebra by Gelfland

No where near as comprehensive as chrystals algebra, but interesting and well

written questions (search for 'correspondence series' by Gelfand).

## Calculus

Calculus made easy - Thompson

This text is really good imo, there's little rigor in it but for getting a

handle on things and bashing through a few practical problems it's pretty

decent. It's all single variable. If you've done the algebra and stuff before

this then this book would be easy.

Pauls Online Notes (Calculus)

These are just a solid set of Calculus notes, there're lots of examples to work

through which is good. These go through calc I, II, III... So a bit further than

you've asked (I'm not sure why you state up to calc II but ok).

Spivak - Calculus

If you've gone through Chrystals algebra then you'll be used to a formal

approach. This text is only single variable calculus (so that might be calc I

and II in most places I think, ? ) but it's extremely well written and often

touted as one of the best Calculus books written. It's very pure, where as

something like Stewart has a more applied emphasis.

**## Geometry

I've got given any geometry sources, I'm not too sure of the best source for

this or (to be honest) if you

reallyneed it for the above. If someone hasgood geometry then they're certainly better off, many proofs are given

gemetrically as well and having an intuition for these things is only going to

be good. But I think you can get through without a formal course on it.... I'm

not confident suggesting things on it though, so I'll leave it to others. Just

thought I'd mention it.

****Machine learning is largely based on the following chain of mathematical topics

Calculus (through Vector, could perhaps leave out a subsequent integration techniques course)

Linear Algebra (You are going to be using this all, a lot)

Abstract Algebra (This isn't always directly applicable but it is good to know for computer science and the terms of groups, rings, algebras etc will show up quite a bit)

General Topology (Any time we are going to deal with construction of a probability space on some non trivial manifold, we will need this. While most situations are based on just Borel sets in R^n or C^n things like computer vision, genomics, etc are going to care about Random Elements rather than Random Variables and those are constructed in topological spaces rather than metric ones. This is also helpful for understanding definitions in well known algorithms like Manifold Training)

Real Analysis (This is where you learn proper constructive formulations and a bit of measure theory as well as bounding theorems etc)

Complex Analysis (This is where you will get a proper treatment of Hilbert Spaces, Holomorphic functions etc, honestly unless you care about QM / QFT, P-chem stuff in general like molecular dynamics, you are likely not going to need a full course in this for most ML work, but I typically just tell people to read the full Rudin: Real and Complex Analysis. You'll get the full treatment fairly briefly that way)

Probability Theory (Now that you have your Measure theory out of the way from Real Analysis, you can take up a proper course on Measure Theoretic Probability Theory. Random Variables should be defined here as measurable functions etc, if they aren't then your book isn't rigorous enough imho.)

Ah, Statistics. Statistics sits atop all of that foundational mathematics, it is divided into two main philosophical camps. The Frequentists, and the Bayesians. Any self respecting statistician learns both.

After that, there are lots, and lots, and lots, of subfields and disciplines when it comes to statistical learning.

A sample of what is on my reference shelf includes:

Real and Complex Analysis by Rudin

Functional Analysis by Rudin

A Book of Abstract Algebra by Pinter

General Topology by Willard

Machine Learning: A Probabilistic Perspective by Murphy

Bayesian Data Analysis Gelman

Probabilistic Graphical Models by Koller

Convex Optimization by Boyd

Combinatorial Optimization by Papadimitriou

An Introduction to Statistical Learning by James, Hastie, et al.

The Elements of Statistical Learning by Hastie, et al.

Statistical Decision Theory by Liese, et al.

Statistical Decision Theory and Bayesian Analysis by Berger

I will avoid listing off the entirety of my shelf, much of it is applications and algorithms for fast computation rather than theory anyway. Most of those books, though, are fairly well known and should provide a good background and reference for a good deal of the mathematics you should come across. Having a solid understanding of the measure theoretic underpinnings of probability and statistics will do you a great deal--as will a solid facility with linear algebra and matrix / tensor calculus. Oh, right, a book on that isn't a bad idea either... This one is short and extends from your vector classes

Tensor Calculus by Synge

Anyway, hope that helps.

Yet another lonely data scientist,

Tim.

Good question OP! I drafted a blog article on this topic a while back but haven't published it yet. An excerpt is below.

--------

With equations, I sometimes just visualize what I'd usually do on paper. For arithmetic, there are actually a lot of computational methods that are better suited to mental computation than the standard pencil-and-paper algorithms.

In fact, mathematician Arthur Benjamin has written a book about this called Secrets of Mental Math.

There are tons of different options, often for the same problem. The main thing is to understand some general principles, such as breaking a problem down into easier sub-problems, and exploiting special features of a particular problem.

Below are some basic methods to give you an idea. (These may not all be entirely different from the pencil-and-paper methods, but at the very least, the format is modified to make them easier to do mentally.)

ADDITION

(1) Separate into place values: 27+39= (20+30)+(7+9)=50+16=66

We've reduced the problem into two easier sub-problems, and combining the sub-problems in the last step is easy, because there is no need to carry as in the standard written algorithm.

(2) Exploit special features: 298+327 = 300 + 327 -2 = 625

We could have used the place value method, but since 298 is close to 300, which is easy to work with, we can take advantage of that by thinking of 298 as 300 - 2.

SUBTRACTION

(1) Number-line method: To find 71-24, you move forward 6 units on the number line to get to 30, then 41 more units to get to 71, for a total of 47 units along the number line.

(2) There are other methods, but I'll omit these, since the number-line method is a good starting point.

MULTIPLICATION

(1) Separate into place values: 18*22 = 18*(20+2)=360+36=396.

(2) Special features: 18*22=(20-2)*(20+2)=400-4=396

Here, instead of using place values, we use the feature that 18*22 can be written in the form (a-b)*(a+b) to obtain a difference of squares.

(3) Factoring method: 14*28=14*7*4=98*4=(100-2)*4=400-8=392

Here, we've turned a product of two 2-digit numbers into simpler sub-problems, each involving multiplication by a single-digit number (first we multiply by 7, then by 4).

(4) Multiplying by 11: 11*52= 572 (add the two digits of 52 to get 5+2=7, then stick 7 in between 5 and 2 to get 572).

This can be done almost instantaneously; try using the place-value method to see why this method works. Also, it can be modified slightly to work when the sum of the digits is a two digit number.

DIVISION

(1) Educated guess plus error correction: 129/7 = ? Note that 7*20=140, and we're over by 11. We need to take away two sevens to get back under, which takes us to 126, so the answer is 18 with a remainder of 3.

(2) Reduce first, using divisibility rules. Some neat rules include the rules for 3, 9, and 11.

The rules for 3 and 9 are probably more well known: a number is divisible by 3 if and only if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3 (replace 3 with 9 and the same rule holds).

For example, 5654 is not divisible by 9, since 5+6+5+4=20, which is not divisible by 9.

The rule for 11 is the same, but it's the alternating sum of the digits that we care about.

Using the same number as before, we get that 5654 is divisible by 11, since 5-6+5-4=0, and 0 is divisible by 11.

PRACTICE

I think it's kind of fun to get good at finding novel methods that are more efficient than the usual methods, and even if it's not that fun, it's at least useful to learn the basics.

If you want to practice these skills outside of the computations that you normally do, there's a nice online arithmetic game I found that's simple and flexible enough for you to practice any of the four operations above, and you can set the parameters to work on numbers of varying sizes.

Happy calculating!

Greg at Higher Math Help

Edit: formatting

I study topology and I can give you some tips based on what I've done. If you want extra info please PM me. I'd love to help someone discover the beautiful field of topology. TLDR at bottom.

If you want to study topology or knot theory in the long term (actually knot theory is a pretty complicated application of topology), it would be a great idea to start reading higher math ASAP. Higher math generally refers to anything proof-based, which is pretty much everything you study in college. It's not

thatmuch harder than high school math and it's indescribably beneficial to try and get into it as soon as you possibly can. Essentially, your math education really begins when you start getting into higher math.If you don't know how to do proofs yet, read How to Prove It. This is the best intro to higher math, and is not hard. Absolutely essential going forward. Ask for it for the holidays.

Once you know how to prove things, read 1 or 2 "intro to topology" books (there are hundreds). I read this one and it was pretty good, but most are pretty much the same. They'll go over definitions and basic theorems that give you a rough idea of how topological spaces (what topologists study) work.

After reading an intro book, move on to this book by Sutherland. It is relatively simple and doesn't require a whole lot of knowledge, but it is definitely rigorous and is definitely necessary before moving on.

After that, there are kind of two camps you could subscribe to. Currently there are two "main" topology books, referred to by their author's names: Hatcher and Munkres. Both are available online for free, but the Munkres pdf isn't legally authorized to be. Reading either of these will make you a topology god. Hatcher is all what's called algebraic topology (relating topology and abstract algebra), which is super necessary for further studies. However, Hatcher is hella hard and you can't read it unless you've really paid attention up to this point. Munkres isn't necessarily "easier" but it moves a lot slower. The first half of it is essentially a recap of Sutherland but much more in-depth. The second half is like Hatcher but less in-depth. Both books are outstanding and it all depends on your skill in specific areas of topology.

Once you've read Hatcher or Munkres, you shouldn't have much trouble going forward into any more specified subfield of topology (be it knot theory or whatever).

If you actually do end up studying topology, please save my username as a resource for when you feel stuck. It really helps to have someone advanced in the subject to talk about tough topics. Good luck going forward. My biggest advice whatsoever, regardless of what you study, is

read How to Prove It ASAP!!!TLDR: How to Prove It (!!!) -> Mendelson -> Sutherland -> Hatcher or Munkres

Computer scientist here... I'm not a "real" mathematician but I do have a good bit of education and practical experience with some specific fields of like probability, information theory, statistics, logic, combinatorics, and set theory. The vast majority of mathematics, though, I'm only interested in as a hobby. I've never gone much beyond calculus in the standard track of math education, so I to enjoy reading "layman's terms" material about math. Here's some stuff I've enjoyed.

Fermat's Enigma This book covers the history of a famous problem that looks very simple, yet it took several hundred years to resolve. In so doing it gives layman's terms overviews of many mathematical concepts in a manner very similar to jfredett here. It's very readable, and for me at least, it also made the study of mathematics feel even more like an exciting search for beautiful, profound truth.

Logicomix: An Epic Search for Truth I've been told this book contains some inaccuracies, but I'm including it because I think it's such a cool idea. It's a graphic novelization (seriously, a graphic novel about a logician) of the life of Bertrand Russell, who was deeply involved in some of the last great ideas before Godel's Incompleteness Theorem came along and changed everything. This isn't as much about the math as it is about the people, but I still found it enjoyable when I read it a few years ago, and it helped spark my own interest in mathematics.

Lots of people also love Godel Escher Bach. I haven't read it yet so I can't really comment on it, but it seems to be a common element of everybody's favorite books about math.

I double majored in math and CS as an undergrad and I enjoyed math more than CS. I'm a graduate student right now planning on doing research in a mathy area of CS. Everything I write below comes from that perspective.

But if you're interested in really digging in and understanding some math at an advanced undergraduate level (analysis, abstract algebra, topology, etc.) then I don't think there is any substitute for books.

> Mathematical Logic

It's not exactly Math Logic, just a bunch of techniques mathematicians use. Math Logic is an actual area of study. Similarly, actual Set Theory and Proof Theory are different from the small set of techniques that most mathematicians use.

Also, looks like you have chosen mostly old, but very popular books. While studying out of these books, keep looking for other books. Just because the book was once popular at a school, doesn't mean it is appropriate for your situation. Every year there are new (and quite frankly) pedagogically better books published. Look through them.

Here's how you find newer books. Go to Amazon. In the search field, choose "Books" and enter whatever term that interests you. Say, "mathematical proofs". Amazon will come up with a bunch of books. First, sort by relevance. That will give you an idea of what's currently popular. Check every single one of them. You'll find hidden jewels no one talks about. Then sort by publication date. That way you'll find newer books - some that haven't even been published yet. If you change the search term even slightly Amazon will come up with completely different batch of books. Also, search for books on Springer, Cambridge Press, MIT Press, MAA and the like. They usually house really cool new titles. Here are a couple of upcoming titles that might be of interest to you: An Illustrative Introduction to Modern Analysis by Katzourakis/Varvarouka, Understanding Topology by Shaun Ault. I bet these books will be far more pedagogically sound as compared to the dry-ass, boring compendium of facts like the books by Rudin.

If you want to learn how to do routine proofs, there are about one million titles out there. Also, note books titled Discrete Math are the best for learning how to do proofs. You get to learn techniques that are not covered in, say, How to Prove It by Velleman. My favorites are the books by Susanna Epp, Edward Scheinerman and Ralph Grimaldi. Also, note a lot of intro to proofs books cover much more than the bare minimum of How to Prove It by Velleman. For example, Math Proofs by Chartrand et al has sections about doing Analysis, Group Theory, Topology, Number Theory proofs. A lot of proof books do not cover proofs from Analysis, so lately a glut of new books that cover that area hit the market. For example, Intro to Proof Through Real Analysis by Madden/Aubrey, Analysis Lifesaver by Grinberg(Some of the reviewers are complaining that this book doesn't have enough material which is ridiculous because this book tackles some ugly topological stuff like compactness in the most general way head-on as opposed to most into Real Analysis books that simply shy away from it), Writing Proofs in Analysis by Kane, How to Think About Analysis by Alcock etc.

Here is a list of extremely gentle titles: Discovering Group Theory by Barnard/Neil, A Friendly Introduction to Group Theory by Nash, Abstract Algebra: A Student-Friendly Approach by the Dos Reis, Elementary Number Theory by Koshy, Undergraduate Topology: A Working Textbook by McClusckey/McMaster, Linear Algebra: Step by Step by Singh (This one is every bit as good as Axler, just a bit less pretentious, contains more examples and much more accessible), Analysis: With an Introduction to Proof by Lay, Vector Calculus, Linear Algebra, and Differential Forms by Hubbard & Hubbard, etc

This only scratches the surface of what's out there. For example, there are books dedicated to doing proofs in Computer Science(for example, Fundamental Proof Methods in Computer Science by Arkoudas/Musser, Practical Analysis of Algorithms by Vrajitorou/Knight, Probability and Computing by Mizenmacher/Upfal), Category Theory etc. The point is to keep looking. There's always something better just around the corner. You don't have to confine yourself to books someone(some people) declared the "it" book at some point in time.

Last, but not least, if you are poor, peruse Libgen.

It's less math intensive in the sense that you won't be solving calculus problems very often (or at all), but there are classes where a (basic) understanding of calculus will be helpful. For instance, I just completed algorithms and was pretty glad that I had taken Calculus. Knowing a lot about limits and knowing L'Hopital's rule made parts of asymptotic analysis a lot more intuitive than it otherwise would have been.

With that said, discrete math (which you'll cover in CS 225) is a pretty big part of the program and computer science as a whole. You'll serve yourself well by getting a solid understanding of discrete math--even in classes where it's not an explicit requirement.

To give an example, in CS 344 (operating systems), there was an assignment where we had to build a pretty simple dungeon-crawler game where a player moved through a series of rooms. Each time the player played the game, there needed to be a new random dungeon, and the connections between rooms needed to be two-way. Calculus isn't really going to help you solve this problem, but if you're good with discrete math, you'll quickly realize that this sort of problem can easily be solved with a graph. Further, you can represent the graph as a 2D array, and at that point the implementation becomes pretty easy.

So, there is math in the program, but not the type that you've probably been doing throughout your academic career. Discrete math comes naturally to some, and it's really difficult for others. I'd recommend picking up this book (which is used in the program) whenever you get a chance:

https://www.amazon.com/Discrete-Mathematics-Applications-Susanna-Epp/dp/0495391328

I'm almost done with the program, but I've been returning to that a lot to review concepts we covered in class and to learn new stuff that we didn't have time for in the term. It's a great book.

Good luck!

http://www.amazon.com/Calculus-4th-Michael-Spivak/dp/0914098918/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1342068971&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=spivak%27s+calculus

This book starts with basic properties of numbers (associativity, commutativity, etc), then moves onto some proof concepts followed by a very good foundation (functions, vectors, polar coordinate). Be forewarned that the content is VERY challenging in this book, and will definitely require a determined effort, but it will certainly be good if you can get through it.

A more gentle introduction to Calculus is http://www.amazon.com/Thomas-Calculus-12th-George-B/dp/0321587995/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1342069166&amp;sr=1-1&amp;keywords=thomas%27+calculus and it is a much easier book, but you don't prove much in this one. Both of these can likely be found online for free. Also, if you want to get a decent understanding I recommend, http://www.amazon.com/How-Prove-Structured-Daniel-Velleman/dp/0521675995/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1342069253&amp;sr=1-1&amp;keywords=how+to+prove+it or http://www.people.vcu.edu/~rhammack/BookOfProof/index.html the latter is definitely free.

You may also need a more introductory text for trig and functions. I can't find the book my school used for precalc, hopefully someone else can offer a good recommendation.

Also, getting a dummies book to read alongside was pretty helpful for me, and Paul's online notes(website) is very nice.

Depends on what you are looking for. You might not be aware that the concepts in that book are literally the foundations of math. All math is (or can be) essentially expressed in set theory, which is based on logic.

You want to improve math reasoning, you should study reasoning, which is logic. It's really not that hard. I mean, ok its hard sometimes but its not rocket science, its doable if you dedicate real time to it and go slowly.

Two other books you may be interested in instead, that teach the same kinds of things:

Introduction to Mathematical Thinking which he wrote to use in his Coursera course.

How to Prove It which is often given as the gold standard for exactly your question. I have it, it is fantastic, though I only got partway through it before starting my current class. Quite easy to follow.

Both books are very conversational -- I know the second one is and I'm pretty sure the first is as well.

What books like this do is teach you the fundamental logical reasoning and math structures used to do things like construct the real number system, define operations on the numbers, and then build up to algebra step by step. You literally start at the 1+1=2 type level and build up from there by following a few rules.

Also, I just googled "basic logic" and stumbled across this, it looks like a fantastic resource that teaches the basics

without any freaky looking symbols, it uses nothing but plain-English sentences. But scanning over it, it teaches everything you get in the first chapter or two of books like those above. http://courses.umass.edu/phil110-gmh/text/c01_3-99.pdfHonestly if I were starting out I would love that last link, it looks fantastic actually.

There are a lot of good classics on /u/thebenson's list. I want to highlight the books that are good for what you'll be learning, and give you a sense of how the sequence works. And I'll add a few.

Thomas' CalculusCalculus books:

,Calculusby James Stewart (not multivariable), and this cheap easy read by Morris Kline.

Have you learned calculus in the past? It sounds like you'll need it for at least one of those courses, but either way, it will definitely help you conceptually for the others. You should really try to get solid on this before you need to use it.

Intro physics books:

Fundamentals of Physics(Halliday & Resnick),Physics for Scientists and Engineers(Serway & Jewett),Physics for Scientists and Engineers(Tipler & Mosca),University Physics(Young), andPhysics for Scientists and Engineers(Knight) are all good. Gee, they get really unoriginal with the names, huh?Each of these books assumes no background in physics, but you do need to use calculus. If you're going to take a class in basic mechanics that doesn't involve any calculus, you may find it more useful to get a book at that level. The only such book that I'm familiar with is

Physics: Principles with Applicationsby Giancoli. I know there are many others, but I can't speak for them.

Engineering MathematicsMathematical methods: Greenberg is way more than you need here. I think you would find

by Stroud & Booth more useful as a reference, since it covers a lot of the less advanced stuff that you may need a refresher on.

Sequence: it's typical to start learning physics by learning about Newtonian mechanics, with or without calculus. After that, one often goes on to thermodynamics or to electricity and magnetism. It sounds like this is roughly how your program is going to work.

If you are learning mechanics with calculus, you can expect E&M to be even heavier on the calculus and thermodynamics to be less so. More calculus is not a bad thing. People often get scared of it, but it actually makes things easier to understand.

It is very typical that you will use only one book (from the intro books above) for all of these topics. You shouldn't need to get any books on specific topics.

**

Spacetime Physics* by Taylor and Wheeler, since I don't want to imply that this is a background-heavy book. On the contrary, this is one of the most beginner-friendly physics books ever written, and it is my favorite introduction to special relativity. Special relativity is probably not something you need to learn about right now, but if you have any interest, I seriously recommend finding an old used copy of this book—it's a fun read aside from any other uses!The other books on /u/thebenson's list are all great textbooks, but I think you should avoid them for now. They generally assume a healthy background in basic physics, and they may not be very relevant to the physics you'll be studying.

But I do want to give some mention to

Hey! This comment ended up being a lot longer than I anticipated, oops.

My all-time favs of these kinds of books definitely has to be

andPrime Obsessionby John Derbyshire -Unknown QuantityPrime Obsessioncovers the history behind one of the most famous unsolved problems in all of math - the Riemann hypothesis, and does it while actually diving into some of the actual theory behind it.Unknown Quantityis quite similar toPrime Obsession, except it's a more general overview of the history of algebra. They're also filled with lots of interesting footnotes. (Ignore his other, more questionable political books.)In a similar vein,

by Simon Singh also does this really well with Fermat's last theorem, an infamously hard problem that remained unsolved until 1995. The rest of his books are also excellent.Fermat's EnigmaAll of Ian Stewart's books are great too - my favs from him are

,Cabinet, andHoardwhich are each filled with lots of fun mathematical vignettes, stories, and problems, which you can pick or choose at your leisure.CasebookWhen it comes to fiction, Edwin Abbott's

is a classic parody of Victorian England and a visualization of what a 4th dimension would look like. (This one's in the public domain, too.) Strictly speaking, this doesn't have any equations in it, but you should definitely still read it for a good mental workout!FlatlandLastly, the

series is a Japanese YA series all about interesting topics like Taylor series, recursive relations, Fermat's last theorem, and Godel's incompleteness theorems. (Yes, really!) Although the 3rd book actually has a pretty decent plot, they're not really that story or character driven. As an interesting and unique mathematical resource though, they're unmatched!Math GirlsI'm sure there are lots of other great books I've missed, but as a high school student myself, I can say that these were the books that really introduced me to how crazy and interesting upper-level math could be, without getting too over my head. They're all highly recommended.

Good luck in your mathematical adventures, and have fun!

Copying my answer from another post:

I was literally in the bottom 14th percentile in math ability when i was 12.

One day, by pure chance, i stumbled across this (free and open) book written by Carl Stitz and Jeff Zeager, of Lakeland Community College

Precalculus

It covers everything from elementary algebra (think grade 5), all the way up to concepts used in Calculus and Linear Algebra (Partial fractions and matrix algebra, respectively.) The book is

extremely well organized.Every sections starts with a dozen or so pages of proofs and derivations that show you the logic of why and how the formulas you'll be using work. This book, more than any other resource (and i've tried a lot of them), helped me build my math intuition from basically nothing.Math is really, really intimidating when you've spent your whole life sucking at it. This book addresses that very well. The proofs are all really well explained, and are very long. You'll basically never go from one step to the next and be completely confused as to how they got there.

Also, there is a metric

shitloadof exercises, ranging from trivial, to pretty difficult, to "it will literally take your entire class working together to solve this". Many of the questions follow sort of an "arc" through the chapters, where you revisit a previous problem in a new context, and solve it with different means (Also, Sasquatches. You'll understand when you read it.)I spent 8 months reading this book an hour a day when i got home from work, and by the end of it i was ready for college. I'm now in my second year of computer science and holding my own (although it's hard as fuck) against Calculus II. I credit Stitz and Zeager entirely. Without this book, i would never have made it to college.

Edit: other resourcesKhan Academy is good, and it definitely complements Stitz/Zeager, but Khan also lacks depth. Like, a lot of depth. Khan Academy is best used for the practice problems and the videos do a good job of walking you through

applicationof math, but it doesn't teach you enough to really build off of it. I know this from experience, as i completed all of Khan's precalculus content. Trust me, Rely on the Stitz book, and use Khan to fill in the gaps.Paul's Online Math Notes

This website is so good it's ridiculous. It has a ton of depth, and amazing reference sheets. Use this for when you need that little extra detail to understand a concept. It's still saving my ass even today (Damned integral trig substitutions...)

Stuff that's more important than you think (if you're interested in higher math after your GED)

Trigonometric functions:very basic in Algebra, but you gotta know the common values of all 6 trig functions, their domains and ranges, and all of their identities for calculus. This one bit me in the ass.Matrix algebra:Linear algebra is p. cool. It's used extensively in computer science, particularly in graphics programming. It's relatively "easy", but there's more conceptual stuff to understand.Edit 2: Electric BoogalooOther good, cheap math textbooks/u/ismann has pointed out to me that Dover Publications has a metric shitload of good, cheap texts (~$25CAD on Amazon, as low as a few bucks USD from what i hear).

Search up

Dover Mathematicson Amazon for a deluge of good, cheap math textbooks. Many are quite old, but i'm sure most will agree that math is a fairly mature discipline, so it's not like it makes a huge difference at the intro level. Here is a Math~~Overflow~~Exchange list of the creme de la creme of Dover math texts, all of which can be had for under $30, often much less. I just bought ~1,000 pages of Linear Algebra, Graph Theory, and Discrete Math text for $50. If you prefer paper to .pdf, this is probably a good route to go.Also, How to Prove it is a very highly rated (and easy to read!) introduction to mathematical proofs. It introduces the basic logical constructs that mathematicians use to write rigorous proofs. It's very approachable, fairly short, and ~$30 new.

> Are the deep mathematical answers to things usually very complex or insanely elegant and simple when you get down to it?

I would say that the deep mathematical answers to questions tend to be very complex and insanely elegant at the same time. The best questions that mathematicians ask tend to be the ones that are very hard but still within reach (in terms of solving them). The solutions to these types of questions often have beautiful answers, but they will generally require lots of theory, technical detail, and/or very clever solutions all of which can be very complex. If they didn't require something tricky, technical, or the development of new theory, they wouldn't be difficult to solve and would be uninteresting.

For any experts that happen to stumble by, my favorite example of this is the classification of semi-stable vector bundles on the complex projective plane by LePotier and Drezet. At the top of page 7 of this paper you'll see a picture representing the fractal structure that arises in this classification. Of course, this required a lot of hard math and complex technical detail to come up with this, but the answer is beautiful and elegant.

> How hard would it be for a non mathematician to go to a pro? Is there just some brain bending that cannot be handled by some? How hard are the concepts to grasp?

I would say that it's difficult to become a professional mathematician. I don't think it has anything to do with an individual's ability to think about it. The concepts are difficult, certainly, but given time and resources (someone to talk to, good books, etc) you can certainly overcome that issue. The majority of the difficulty is that there is

so much math!If you're an average person, you've probably taken at most Calculus. The average mathematics PhD (i.e., someone who is just getting their mathematical career going) has probably taken two years of undergraduate mathematics courses, another two years of graduate mathematics courses, and two to three years of research level study beyond calculus to begin to be able tackle the current theory and solve the problems we are interested in today. That's a lot of knowledge to acquire, and it takes a very long time. That doesn't mean you can't start solving problems earlier, however. If you're interested in this type of thing, you might want to consider picking up this book and see if you like it.I've always enjoyed all types of math but all throughout (engineering) undergrad and grad school all I ever got to do was computational-based math, i.e. solving problems. This was enjoyable but it wasn't until I learned how to read and write proofs (by self-studying How to Prove It) that I really fell in love with it. Proofs are much more interesting because each one is like a logic puzzle, which I have always greatly enjoyed. I also love the duality of intuition and rigorous reasoning, both of which are often necessary to create a solid proof. Right now I'm going back and self-studying Control Theory (need it for my EE PhD candidacy but never took it because I was a CEG undergrad) and working those problems is just so mechanical and uninteresting relative to the real analysis I study for fun.

EDIT: I also love how math is like a giant logical structure resting on a small number of axioms and you can study various parts of it at various levels. I liken it to how a computer works, which levels with each higher level resting on those below it. There's the transistor level (loosely analogous to the axioms), the logic gate level, (loosely analogous set theory), and finally the high level programming language level (loosely analogous to pretty much everything else in math like analysis or algebra).

Please excuse the length, I love making lists.

Video ProductionGreen Screen

Bounce

Tripod

BooksDining with Dr Who

Writing movies for fun and profit This is a great book. I have it, absolutely hysterical.

WritingInk quill

TARDIS Deluxe Journal

TravelStreet Signs

Flags

Eiffel Tower Chocolate Mold

Little Window Beach

17th century world map

Watercolor World Map

Universal world wide adapter plug

Hidden pocket wallet

Science!Liquid Gold Plating Kit

Molecular Gastronomy Kit

This one also works for

gardening:Moons and Blooms lunar calender

Inflatable earth with glow in the dark cities

Galilea Moon Phase Calendar and Clock

Glow in the dark lunar calender!

ArtSunprint Kit

Scrapper tool set

Fantasy!LOTR inspired necklace

Another LOTR inspired necklace

Dragon necklace

Dragon JEwerly box

These/this are/is a book, but Mercedes Lackey is a FANTASTIC fantasy writer. I'd start with the Mage Winds trilogy or Mage Wars series.

OutdoorsPortal-able Speakers If you want to listen to relaxing music (or just music) while reading or chilling outside, this is the perfect speaker. It goes pretty loud, my bro has one, I steal if to make my showers musical.

Solar power LED Water proof color changing globes

Ball lanterns!

MathMath clock

Mental Math

Pi ice cube shape tray

Mini Abacus pendant keychain

And it was delicious

Math jokes

Math/science ice cube tray

Rubik's Cube office thingy

Abacus-they have these in all colors and shapes and what have you.

SpiritualityWasn't quite sure what you're looking for, but these things are pretty relaxing and some of them are used in meditation or for relaxation/de-stress so I figured I could put 'em here.

[LED mini waterfall)(http://www.amazon.com/Mirrored-Waterfall-Light-Show-Fountain/dp/B008Q3GH1O/ref=pd_sim_hpc_17)

Zen reflection bonzai tree with a little pond

Candle and water fountain

Five tier illuminated fountain

Other random fun things!DR Who Projector clock

Sherlock season one Dunno but I feel you might like this show.

Giant Nail polish set

Nail art brushes

LED faucet water glow thing

Alright! I think I'll stop there before this becomes a novel xD

I would guess that career prospects are a little worse than CS for undergrad degrees, but since my main concern is where a phd in math will take me, you should get a second opinion on that.

Something to keep in mind is that "higher" math (the kind most students start to see around junior level) is in many ways very different from the stuff before. I hated calculus and doing calculations in general, and was pursuing a math minor because I thought it might help with job prospects, but when I got to the more abstract stuff, I loved it. It's easily possible that you'll enjoy both, I'm just pointing out that enjoying one doesn't necessarily imply enjoying the other. It's also worth noting that making the transition is not easy for most of us, and that if you struggle a lot when you first have to focus a lot of time on proving things, it shouldn't be taken as a signal to give up if you enjoy the material.

This wouldn't be necessary, but if you like, here are some books on abstract math topics that are aimed towards beginners you could look into to get a basic idea of what more abstract math is like:

Different mathematicians gravitate towards different subjects, so it's not easy to predict which you would enjoy more. I'm recommending these five because they were personally helpful to me a few years ago and I've read them in full, not because I don't think anyone can suggest better. And of course, you could just jump right into coursework like how most of us start. Best of luck!

(edit: can't count and thought five was four)

Indeed; you may feel that you are at a disadvantage compared to your peers, and that the amount of work you need to pull off is insurmountable.

However, you have an edge. You realize you need help, and you

wantto catch up. Motivation and incentive is a powerful thing.Indeed, being passionate about something makes you much more likely to remember it. Interestingly, the passion does not need to be a loving one.

A common pitfall when learning math is thinking it is like learning history, philosophy, or languages, where it doesn't matter if you miss out a bit; you will still understand everything later, and the missing bits will fall into place eventually. Math is nothing like that. Math is like building a house. A first step for you should therefore be to identify how much of the foundation of math you have, to know where to start from.

Khan Academy is a good resource for this, as it has a good overview of math, and how the different topics in math relate (what requires understanding of what). Khan Academy also has good exercises to solve, and ways to get help. There are also many great books on mathematics, and going through a book cover-to-cover is a satisfying experience. I have heard people speak highly of Serge Lang's "Basic Mathematics".

Finding sparetime activities to train your analytic and critical thinking skills will also help you immeasurably. Here I recommend puzzle books, puzzle games (I recommend Portal, Lolo, Lemmings, and The Incredible Machine), board/card games (try Eclipse, MtG, and Go), and programming (Scheme or Haskell).

It takes effort. But I think you will find your journey through maths to be a truly rewarding experience.

let me give you a shortcut.

You want to know how partial derivatives work? Consider a function with two variables: f(x,y) = x^2 y^3, for a simple example.

here's what you do. Let's take the partial derivative with respect to x. What you do, is you consider all the other variables to be constant, and just take the standard derivative with respect to x. In this case, the partial derivative with respect to x is: 2xy^3. That's it, it's really that easy.

What about taking with respect to y? Same thing, now x is constant, and your answer is 3x^2 y^2.

This is an incredibly deep topic, but getting enough of an understanding to tackle gradient descent is really pretty simple. If you want to full on jump in though and get some exposure to way more than you need, check out div curl and grad and all that. It covers a lot, including a fair amount that you won't need for any ML algorithm I've ever seen (curl, divergence theorem, etc) but the intro section on the gradient at the beginning might be helpful... maybe see if you can find a pdf or something. There's probably other good intros too, but seriously... the mechanics of actually performing a partial derivative really are that easy. If you can do a derivative in one dimension, you can handle partial derivatives.

edit: I misread, didn't see you were a junior in highschool. Disregard div curl grad and all that, I highly recommend it, but you should be up through calc 3 and linear algebra first.

To change my advice to be slightly more relevant, learn how normal derivatives work. Go through the Kahn Academy calc stuff if the format appeals to you. Doesn't matter what course you go through though, you just need to go through a few dozen exercises (or a few hundred, depending on your patience and interest) and you'll get there. Derivatives aren't too complicated really, if you understand the limit definition of the derivative (taking the slope over a vanishingly small interval) then the rest is just learning special cases. How do you take the derivative of f(x)g(x)? f(g(x))? There's really not too many rules, so just spend a while practicing and you'll be right where you need to be. Once you're there, going up to understanding partial derivatives is as simple as I described above... if you can take a standard derivative, you can take a partial derivative.

Also: props for wading into the deep end yourself! I know some of this stuff might seem intimidating, but if you do what you're doing (make sure you understand as much as you can instead of blowing ahead) you'll be able to follow this trail as far as you want to go. Good luck, and feel free to hit me up if you have any specific questions, I'd be happy to share.

Thanks for the answer!

Glad to hear about Spivak! I've heard good things about that textbook and am looking forward to going through it soon :). Are the course notes for advanced algebra available online? If so, could you link them?

Is SICP used only in the advanced CS course or the general stream one, too? (last year I actually worked my way through the first two chapters before getting distracted by something else - loved it though!) Also, am I correct in thinking that the two first year CS courses cover functional programming/abstraction/recursion in the first term and then data structures/algorithms in the second?

That's awesome to know about 3rd year math courses! I was under the impression that prerequisites were enforced very strongly at Waterloo, guess I was wrong :).

As for graduate studies in pure math, that's the plan, but I in no way have my heart set on anything. I've had a little exposure to graph theory and I loved it, I'm sure that with even more exposure I'd find it even more interesting. Right now I think the reason I'm leaning towards pure math is 'cause the book I'm going through deals with mathematical logic / set theory and I think it's really fascinating, but I realize that I've got 4/5 years before I will even start grad school so I'm not worrying about it too much!

Anyways, thanks a lot for your answer! I feel like I'm leaning a lot towards Waterloo now :)

Pick up mathematics. Now if you have never done math past the high school and are an "average person" you probably cringed.

Math (an "actual kind") is nothing like the kind of shit you've seen back in grade school. To break into this incredible world all you need is to know math at the level of, say, 6th grade.

Intro to Math:

These books only serve as samplers because they don't even begin to scratch the surface of math. After you familiarized yourself with the basics of writing proofs you can get started with intro to the largest subsets of math like:

Intro to Abstract Algebra:

There are tons more books on abstract/modern algebra. Just search them on Amazon. Some of the famous, but less accessible ones are

Intro to Real Analysis:

Again, there are tons of more famous and less accessible books on this subject. There are books by Rudin, Royden, Kolmogorov etc.

Ideally, after this you would follow it up with a nice course on rigorous multivariable calculus. Easiest and most approachable and totally doable one at this point is

At this point it's clear there are tons of more famous and less accessible books on this subject :) I won't list them because if you are at this point of math development you can definitely find them yourself :)

From here you can graduate to studying category theory, differential geometry, algebraic geometry, more advanced texts on combinatorics, graph theory, number theory, complex analysis, probability, topology, algorithms, functional analysis etc

Most listed books and more can be found on libgen if you can't afford to buy them. If you are stuck on homework, you'll find help on [MathStackexchange] (https://math.stackexchange.com/questions).

Good luck.

This is just my perspective, but . . .

I think there are two separate concerns here: 1) the "process" of mathematics, or mathematical thinking; and 2) specific mathematical systems which are fundamental and help frame much of the world of mathematics.

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Abstract algebra is one of those specific mathematical systems, and is very important to understand in order to really understand things like analysis (e.g. the real numbers are a field), linear algebra (e.g. vector spaces), topology (e.g. the fundamental group), etc.

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I'd recommend these books, which are for the most part short and easy to read, on mathematical thinking:

&#x200B;

How to Solve It, Polya ( https://www.amazon.com/How-Solve-Mathematical-Princeton-Science/dp/069111966X ) covers basic strategies for problem solving in mathematics

Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning Vol 1 & 2, Polya ( https://www.amazon.com/Mathematics-Plausible-Reasoning-Induction-Analogy/dp/0691025096 ) does a great job of teaching you how to find/frame good mathematical conjectures that you can then attempt to prove or disprove.

Mathematical Proof, Chartrand ( https://www.amazon.com/Mathematical-Proofs-Transition-Advanced-Mathematics/dp/0321797094 ) does a good job of teaching how to prove mathematical conjectures.

&#x200B;

As for really understanding the foundations of modern mathematics, I would start with Concepts of Modern Mathematics by Ian Steward ( https://www.amazon.com/Concepts-Modern-Mathematics-Dover-Books/dp/0486284247 ) . It will help conceptually relate the major branches of modern mathematics and build the motivation and intuition of the ideas behind these branches.

&#x200B;

Abstract algebra and analysis are very fundamental to mathematics. There are books on each that I found gave a good conceptual introduction as well as still provided rigor (sometimes at the expense of full coverage of the topics). They are:

&#x200B;

A Book of Abstract Algebra, Pinter ( https://www.amazon.com/Book-Abstract-Algebra-Second-Mathematics/dp/0486474178 )

&#x200B;

Understanding Analysis, Abbott ( https://www.amazon.com/Understanding-Analysis-Undergraduate-Texts-Mathematics/dp/1493927116 ).

&#x200B;

If you read through these books in the order listed here, it might provide you with that level of understanding of mathematics you talked about.

What this expressions saysFirst of all let's specify that the domain over which these statements operate is the set of all

peoplesay.Let us give the two place predicate P(x,y) a concrete meaning. Let us say that P(x,y) signifies the relation

x loves y.This allows us to translate the statement:

∀x∀yP(x,y) -> ∀xP(x,x)

What does ∀x∀yP(x,y) mean?This is saying that

For all x, it is the case that For all y, x loves y.So you can interpret it as saying something like

everyone loves everyone.What does ∀xP(x,x) mean?This is saying that

For all x it is the case that x loves x. So you can interpret this as saying something likeeveryone loves themselves.So the statement is basically saying:

Given that it is the case that Everyone loves Everyone, this implies that everyone loves themselves.This translation gives us the impression that the statement is true. But how to prove it?

Proof by contradictionWe can prove this statement with a technique called proof by contradiction. That is, let us assume that the conclusion is false, and show that this leads to a contradiction, which implies that the conclusion must be true.

So let's assume:

∀x∀yP(x,y) ->

not∀xP(x,x)not∀xP(x,x) is equivalent to ∃x not P(x,x).In words this means

It is not the case that For all x P(x,x) is true, is equivalent to saying there exists x such P(x,x) is false.So let's

instantiatethis expression with something from the domain, let's call ita. Basically let's pick a person for whom we are saying a loves a is false.not P(a,a)Using the fact that ∀x∀yP(x,y) we can show a contradiction exists.

Let's instantiate the expression with the object

awe have used previously (as a For all statement applies to all objects by definition) ∀x∀yP(x,y)This happens in two stages:

First we instantiate y

∀xP(x,a)

Then we instantiate x

P(a,a)The statements

P(a,a)andnot P(a,a)are contradictory, therefore we have shown that the statement:∀x∀yP(x,y) ->

not∀xP(x,x) leads to a contradiction, which implies that∀x∀yP(x,y) -> ∀xP(x,x) is true.

Hopefully that makes sense.

Recommended ResourcesWilfred Hodges - Logic

Peter Smith - An Introduction to Formal Logic

Chiswell and Hodges - Mathematical Logic

Velleman - How to Prove It

Solow - How to Read and Do Proofs

Chartand, Polimeni and Zhang - Mathematical Proofs: A Transition to Advanced Mathematics

You should absolutely not give up.

None of this is groundbreaking, and a lot of it is pretty cliché, but it's true. Everyone struggles with math at some point. Einstein said something like "whatever your struggles with math are, I assure you that mine are greater."

As for specific recommendations,

make the most of this summer. The most important factor in learning math in my experience is "time spent actively doing math." My favorite math quote is "you don't learn math, you get used to it." I might recommend a book like How to Prove It. I read it the summer before I entered college, and it helped immensely with proofs in real analysis and abstract algebra. Give that a read, and I bet you will be able to prove most lemmas in undergraduate algebra and topology books, and solve many of their problems. Just keep at it!You do realize that there is guesswork but the extremes of the confidence interval are strictly positive right? In other words, no one is certain but what we are certain about is that optimum homework amount is

positive. Maybe it's 4 hours, maybe it's 50 hours. But it's definitely not 0.I don't like homework either when I was young. I dreaded it, and I skipped so many assignments, and I regularly skipped school. I hated school. In my senior year I had such severe senioritis that after I got accepted my grades basically crashed to D-ish levels. (By the way this isn't a good thing. It makes you lazy and trying to jumpstart again in your undergrad freshman year will feel like a huge, huge chore)

Now that I'm older I clearly see the benefits of homework. My advice to you is not to agree with me that homework is useful. My advice is to pursue your dreams, but when doing so be keenly aware of the pragmatical considerations. Theoretical physics demands a high level of understanding of theoretical mathematics: Lie groups, manifolds and differential algebraic topology, grad-level analysis, and so on. So get your arse and start studying math; you don't have to like your math homework, but you'd better be reading Spivak if you're truly serious about becoming a theoretical physicist. It's not easy. Life isn't easy. You want to be a theoretical physicist? Guess what, top PhD graduate programs often have acceptance rates

lowerthan Harvard, Yale, Stanford etc. You want to stand out? Well everyone wants to stand out. But for every 100 wannabe 15-year-old theoretical physicists out there, only 1 has actually started on that route, started studying first year theoretical mathematics (analysis, vector space), started reading research papers, started reallyknowingwhat it takes. Do you want to be that 1? If you don't want to do homework, fine; but you need to be doingworkthat allows you to reach your dreams.Hey! I am a math major at Harvey Mudd College (who went to high school in the Pacific NW!). I'll answer from what I've seen.

End: Also, if you wanna learn something cool, I'd check out Discrete math. It's usually required for both a math or CS major, and it's some of the coolest undergraduate math out there. Oh, and, unlike some other math, it's not terrible to self-teach. :)

Good luck! Math is awesome!

The Book

The Review of The Book:

~

~~~~~OK... Deep breaths everybody...

It is not possible to overstate how good this book is. I tried to give it uncountably many stars but they only have five. Five is an insult. I'm sorry Dr. Rudin...

This book is a good reference but let me tell you what its really good for. You have taken all the lower division courses. You have taken that "transition to proof writing" class in number theory, or linear algebra, or logic, or discrete math, or whatever they do at your institution of higher learning. You can tell a contrapositive from a proof by contradiction. You can explain to your grandma why there are more real numbers than rationals. Now its time to get serious.

Get this book. Start at page one. Read until you come to the word Theorem. Do not read the proof. Prove it yourself. Or at least try. If you get stuck read a line or two until you see what to do.

Thrust, repeat.

If you make it through the first six or seven chaptors like this then there shall be no power in the verse that can stop you. Enjoy graduate school. You half way there.

Now some people complain about this book being too hard. Don't listen to them. They are just trying to pull you down and keep you from your true destiny. They are the same people who try to sell you TV's and lobodemies.

"The material is not motivated." Not motivated? Judas just stick a dagger in my heart. This material needs no motivation. Just do it. Faith will come. He's teaching you analysis. Not selling you a used car. By the time you are ready to read this book you should not need motivation from the author as to why you need to know analysis. You should just feel a burning in you chest that can only be quenched by arguments involving an arbitrary sequence {x_n} that converges to x in X.

Finally, some people complain about the level of abstraction, which let me just say is not that high. If you want to see abstraction grab a copy of Spanier's 'Algebraic Topology' and stare at it for about an hour. Then open 'Baby Rudin' up again. I promise you the feeling you get when you sit in a hottub for like twenty minutes and then jump back in the pool. Invigorating.

No but really. Anyone who passes you an analysis book that does not say the words metric space, and have the chaptor on topology before the chapter on limits is doing you no favors. You need to know what compactness is when you get out of an analysis course. And it's lunacy to start talking about differentiation without it. It's possible, sure, but it's a waste of time and energy. To say a continuous function is one where the inverse image of open sets is open is way cooler than that epsilon delta stuff. Then you prove the epsilon delta thing as a theorem. Hows that for motivation?

Anyway, if this review comes off a combative that's because it is. It's unethical to use another text for an undergraduate real analysis class. It insults and short changes the students. Sure it was OK before Rudin wrote the thing, but now? Why spit on your luck? And if you'r a student and find the book too hard? Try harder. That's the point. If you did not crave intellectual work why are you sitting in an analysis course? Dig in. It will make you a better person. Trust me.

Or you could just change your major back to engineering. It's more money and the books always have lots of nice pictures.

In conclusion: Thank you Dr. Rudin for your wonderfull book on analysis. You made a man of me.

When I was his age, I read a lot of books on the history of mathematics and biographies of great mathematicians. I remember reading Fermat's Enigma: The Epic Quest to Solve the World's Greatest Mathematical Problem.

Any book by Martin Gardner would be great. No man has done as much to popularize mathematics as Martin Gardner.

The games 24 and Set are pretty mathematical but not cheesy. He might also like a book on game theory.

It's great that you're encouraging his love of math from an early age. Thanks to people like you, I now have my math degree.

Maybe a bit off topic, but I think that if you have a "math phobia" as you say, then maybe you need to find a way to become interested in the math for math's sake. I don't think you'll be motivated to study unless you can find it exciting.

For me, The Universal History of Numbers was a great book to get me interested in math. It's a vast history book that recounts the development of numbers and number systems all over the world. Maybe by studying numbers in their cultural context you'll find more motivation to study, say, the real number system (leading to analysis and so on). That's just an example and there are other popular math books you could try for motivation (Fermat's Enigma is good).

Edit: Also, there are numerous basic math books that are aimed at educated adults. Understanding Mathematics is one which I have read at one point and wasn't bad as far as I can remember. I am sure there are more modern, and actually for sale on Amazon, books on this topic though.

Little mental trick you can do to show off to some people:

any number * 11 is easy. Even in the 2 digits.

Let's do 32 again.

*

3211Separate 32 into two digits, add them, and then put that number between those two digits. For example:

3 + 2 = 5

place between the two original digits:

352

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This works with three digits as well (but I have to go figure out how to do that one again). There is a book on the Apple Store that is an awesome read if you're into it. All of the things I am showing you are possible to do mentally. I can currently square 4 digit numbers in my head sorta reliably, and can square 3 and 2 digit numbers without fail. It is really fun and I enjoy doing it.

-----

EDIT:

PLEASE PLEASE PLEASE support this guy and do not download a pdf of the book. He is absolutely incredible with what he can do and is sharing it with people so they can do it too. Give him credit!

Book on Amazon

Book on iBooks

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Youtube video of this guy

I think the advice given in the rest of the thread is pretty good, though some of it a little naive. The suggestion that differential equations or applied math somehow should not be of interest is silly. A lot of it builds the motivation for some of the abstract stuff which is pretty cool, and a lot of it has very pure problems associated with it. In addition I think after (or rather alongside) your initial calculus education is a good time to look at some other things before moving onto more difficult topics like abstract algebra, topology, analysis etc.

The first course I took in undergrad was a course that introduced logic, writing proofs, as well as basic number theory. The latter was surprisingly useful as it built modular arithmetic which gave us a lot of groups and rings to play with in subsequent algebra courses. Unfortunately the textbook was god awful. I've heard good things about the following two sources and together they seem to cover the content:

How to prove it

Number theory

After this I would take a look at linear algebra. This a field with a large amount of uses in both pure and applied math. It is useful as it will get you used to doing algebraic proofs, it takes a look at some common themes in algebra, matrices (one of the objects studied) are also used thoroughly in physics and applied mathematics and the knowledge is useful for numerical approximations of ordinary and partial differential equations. The book I used Linear Algebra by Friedberg, Insel and Spence, but I've heard there are better.

At this point I think it would be good to move onto Abstract Algebra, Analysis and Topology. I think Farmerje gave a good list.

There's many more topics that you could possibly cover, ODEs and PDEs are very applicable and have a rich theory associated with them, Complex Analysis is a beautiful subject, but I think there's plenty to keep you busy for the time being.

I may be in the minority here, but I think that high school students should be exposed to statistics and probability. I don't think that it would be possible to exposed them to full mathematical statistics (like the CLT, regression, multivariate etc) but they should have a basic understanding of descriptive statistics. I would emphasize things like the normal distribution, random variables, chance, averages and standard deviations. This could improve numerical literacy, and help people evaluate news reports and polls critically. It could also cut down on some issues like the gambler's fallacy, or causation vs correlation.

It would be nice if we could teach everyone mathematical statistics, the CLT, and programming in R. But for the majority of the population a basic understanding of the key concepts would be an improvement, and would be useful.

EditAt the other end of the spectrum, I would like to see more access to an elective class that covers the basics of mathematical thinking. I would target this at upperclassmen who are sincerely interested in mathematics, and feel that the standard trig-precalculus-calculus is not enough. It would be based off of a freshman math course at my university, that strives to teach the basics of proofs and mathematical thinking using examples from different fields of math, but mostly set theory and discrete math. Maybe use Velleman's book or something similar as a text.First off, I'd recommend looking into a book like this.

Second, when doing something like multiplication, it always helps to break a problem down into easier steps. Typically, you want to be working with multiples of 10/100/1000s etc.

For multiplying 32 by 32, I would break it into two problems: (32 x 30) + (32 x 2). With a moderate amount of practice, you should quickly be able to see that the first term is 960, and the second is 64. Adding them together gives the answer: 1024. It can be tricky to keep all these numbers in your head at once, but that honestly just comes down to practice.

Also, that same question can be expressed as 32^2 . These types of problems have a whole bunch of neat tricks. One that I recall from the book I linked above has to do with squaring any number ending in a 5, like 15 or 145. First, the number will always end in 25. For the leading digits, take the last 5 off the number, and multiply the remaining digits by their value +1. So, for 15 we just have 1x2=2. For 145, we have 14x15=210. Finally, tack 25 on the end of that, so you have 15^2 = (1x2)25 = 225, and 145^2 = (14x15)25 = 21025. Boom! Now you can square any number ending in 5 really quick.

Edit:Wanted to add some additional comments that have helped me out through the years. First, realize that(1) Addition is easier than subtraction,

(2) Addition and subtraction are easier than multiplication,

(3) Multiplication is easier than division.

Let's go through these one by one. For (1), try to rewrite a subtraction problem as addition. Say you're given 31 - 14; then rephrase the question as,

whatplus 14 equals 31? You can immediately see that the ones digit is 7, since 4+7 = 11. We have to remember that we are carrying the ten over to the next digit, and solve 1 + (1 carried over) +what= 3. Obviously the tens digit for our answer is 1, and the answer is 17. I hope I didn't explain that too poorly.For (2), that's pretty much what I was originally explaining at the start. Try to break a multiplication problem down to a problem of simple multiplication plus addition or subtraction. One more example: 37 x 40. Here, 40 looks nice and simple to work with; 37 is also pretty close to it, so let's add 3 to it and just make sure to subtract it later. That way, you end up with 40 x 40 - (3 x 40) = 1600 - 120 = 1480.

I don't really have any hints with division, unfortunately. I don't really run into it too often, and when I do, I just resort to some mental long division.

I'm only a high school sophomore, so I can't really help you with most of your questions, but if you want to improve your mental math, buy "Secrets of Mental Math" by Arthur Benjamin.

It's written in a way that makes sitting in your room doing mental calculations seem fun and it is very accessible. I have only gotten through 3 chapters (the addition/subtraction/multiplication chapters) and I can confidently add and subtract 3-digit numbers in seconds. I can even mentally cube two-digit numbers in a few minutes.

[Anyway, here's a link to the book] (http://www.amazon.com/Secrets-Mental-Math-Mathemagicians-Calculation/dp/0307338401/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1381633585&amp;sr=1-1&amp;keywords=mental+math)

[If you don't want to buy it, you can use this PDF version of the book] (http://www.uowm.gr/mathslife/images/fbfiles/files/Secrets_of_Mental_Math___Michael_Shermer___Arthur_Benjamin.pdf)

[And here is the author, Arthur Benjamin, performing what he likes to call "Mathemagics"] (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e4PTvXtz4GM)

I hope this has been helpful and you succeed in whatever uni you go to :)

I've heard people recommend Kiselev's Geometry, on a physics forum. Warning, though; Kiselev's Geometry series(in English) is translated from Russian.

Here's the link to where I got all these resources(I also copy-pasted what's in the link down below; although, I did omit a few entries, as it would be too long for this reddit comment; click the link to see more resources):

https://www.physicsforums.com/insights/self-study-basic-high-school-mathematics/

__Note: Alternatively, you can order Kiselev's geometry series from http://www.sumizdat.org/

## Geometry I and II by Kiselev

http://www.amazon.com/Kiselevs-Geometry-Book-I-Planimetry/dp/0977985202

http://www.amazon.com/Kiselevs-Geometry-Book-II-Stereometry/dp/0977985210

> If you do not remember much of your geometry classes (or never had such class), then you can hardly do better than Kiselev’s geometry books. This two-volume work covers a lot of synthetic (= little algebra is used) geometry. The first volume is all about plane geometry, the second volume is all about spatial geometry. The book even has a brief introduction to vectors and non-Euclidean geometry.

The first book covers:

The second book covers:

> This book should be good for people who have never had a geometry class, or people who wish to revisit it. This book does not cover analytic geometry (such as equations of lines and circles).

____## Geometry by Lang, Murrow

http://www.amazon.com/Geometry-School-Course-Serge-Lang/dp/0387966544

> Lang is another very famous mathematician, and this shows in his book. The book covers a lot of what Kiselev covers, but with another point of view: namely the point of view of coordinates and algebra. While you can read this book when you’re new to geometry, I do not recommend it. If you’re already familiar with some Euclidean geometry (and algebra and trigonometry), then this book should be very nice.

The book covers:

> This book should be good for people new to analytic geometry or those who need a refresher.

> Finally, there are some topics that were not covered in this book but which are worth knowing nevertheless. Additionally, you might want to cover the topics again but this time somewhat more structured.

> For this reason, I end this list of books by the following excellent book:

## Basic Mathematics by Lang

http://www.amazon.com/Basic-Mathematics-Serge-Lang/dp/0387967877

> This book covers everything that you need to know of high school mathematics. As such, I highly advise people to read this book before starting on their journey to more advanced mathematics such as calculus. I do not however recommend it as a first exposure to algebra, geometry or trigonometry. But if you already know the basics, then this book should be ideal.

> I recommend this book to everybody who wants to solidify their basic knowledge, or who remembers relatively much of their high school education but wants to revisit the details nevertheless.

_

____More links:

https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/34442/book-recommendation-on-plane-euclidean-geometry

Note: oftentimes, you can find geometry book recommendations( as well as other math book recommendations) in stackexchange; just use the search bar.

__https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/geometry-book.727765/

https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/decent-books-for-high-school-algebra-and-geometry.701905/

https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/micromass-insights-on-how-to-self-study-mathematics.868968/

Initially I'd avoid books on areas of science that might challenge her (religious) beliefs. You friend is open to considering a new view point. Which is awesome but can be very difficult. So don't push it. Start slowly with less controversial topics. To be clear, I'm saying avoid books that touch on evolution! Other controversial topics might include vaccinations, dinosaurs, the big bang, climate change, etc. Picking a neutral topic will help her acclimate to science. Pick a book related to something that she is interested in.

I'd also start with a book that the tells a story centred around a science, instead of simply trying to explain that science. In telling the story their authors usually explain the science. (Biographies about interesting scientist are a good choice too). The idea is that if she enjoys reading the book, then chances are she will be more likely to accept the science behind it.

Here are some recommendations:

The Wave by Susan Casey: http://www.amazon.com/The-Wave-Pursuit-Rogues-Freaks/dp/0767928857

Fermat's Enigma by Simon Singh: http://www.amazon.com/Fermats-Enigma-Greatest-Mathematical-Problem/dp/0385493622

The Man who Loved Only Numbers by Paul Hoffman: http://www.amazon.com/Man-Who-Loved-Only-Numbers/dp/0786884061/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1405720480&amp;sr=1-1&amp;keywords=paul+erdos

I also recommend going to a book store with her, and peruse the science section. Pick out a book together. Get a copy for yourself and make it a small book club. Give her someone to discusses the book with.

After a few books, if she's still interested then you can try pushing her boundaries with something more controversial or something more technical.

There are essentially "two types" of math: that for mathematicians and everyone else. When you see the sequence Calculus(1, 2, 3) -> Linear Algebra -> DiffEq (in that order) thrown around, you can be sure they are talking about non-rigorous, non-proof based kind that's good for nothing, imo of course. Calculus in this sequence is Analysis with all its important bits chopped off, so that everyone not into math can get that outta way quick and concentrate on where their passion lies. The same goes for Linear Algebra. LA in the sequence above is absolutely butchered so that non-math majors can pass and move on. Besides, you don't take LA or Calculus or other math subjects just once as a math major and move on: you take a rigorous/proof-based intro as an undergrad, then more advanced kind as a grad student etc.

To illustrate my point:

Linear Algebra:

Linear Algebra Through Geometry by Banchoff and Wermer

3. Here's more rigorous/abstract Linear Algebra for undergrads:

Linear Algebra Done Right by Axler

4. Here's more advanced grad level Linear Algebra:

Advanced Linear Algebra by Steven Roman

-----------------------------------------------------------

Calculus:

Calulus by Spivak

3. Full-blown undergrad level Analysis(proof-based):

Analysis by Rudin

4. More advanced Calculus for advance undergrads and grad students:

Advanced Calculus by Sternberg and Loomis

The same holds true for just about any subject in math. Btw, I am not saying you should study these books. The point and truth is you can start learning

mathright now, right this moment instead of reading lame and useless books designed to extract money out of students. Besides, there are so many more math subjects that are so much more interesting than the tired old Calculus: combinatorics, number theory, probability etc. Each of those have intros you can get started with right this moment.Here's how you start studying real math NOW:

Learning to Reason: An Introduction to Logic, Sets, and Relations by Rodgers. Essentially, this book is about the language that you need to be able to understand mathematicians, read and write proofs. It's not terribly comprehensive, but the amount of info it packs beats the usual first two years of math undergrad 1000x over. Books like this should be taught in high school. For alternatives, look into

Discrete Math by Susanna Epp

How To prove It by Velleman

Intro To Category Theory by Lawvere and Schnauel

There are TONS great, quality books out there, you just need to get yourself a liitle familiar with what real math looks like, so that you can explore further on your own instead of reading garbage and never getting even one step closer to mathematics.

If you want to consolidate your knowledge you get from books like those of Rodgers and Velleman and take it many, many steps further:

Basic Language of Math by Schaffer. It's a much more advanced book than those listed above, but contains all the basic tools of math you'll need.

I'd like to say soooooooooo much more, but I am sue you're bored by now, so I'll stop here.

Good Luck, buddyroo.

Depends what kind of math you're interested in. If you're looking for an introduction to higher (college) math, then How to Prove It is probably your best bet. It generally goes over how proofs work, different ways of proving stuff, and then some.

If you already know about proofs (i.e. you are comfortable with at least direct proofs, induction, and contradiction) then the world is kind of your oyster. Almost anything you pick up is at least accessible. I don't really know what to recommend in this case since it's highly dependent on what you like.

If you don't really know the basics about proofs and don't care enough to yet, then anything by Dover is around your speed. My favorites are Excursions in Number Theory and Excursions in Geometry. Those two books use pretty simple high school math to give a relatively broad look at each of those fields (both are very interesting, but the number theory one is much easier to understand).

If you're looking for high school math, then /u/ben1996123 is probably right that /r/learnmath is best for that.

If you want more specific suggestions, tell me what you have enjoyed learning about the most and I'd be happy to oblige.

I agree with all the suggestions to start with How to Prove It by Velleman. It's a great start for going deeper into mathematics, for which rigor is a sine qua non.

As you seem to enjoy calculus, might I also suggest doing some introductory real analysis? For the level you seem to be at, I recommend Understanding Analysis by Abbott. It helped me bridge the gap between my calculus courses and my first analysis course, together with Velleman. (Abbott here has the advantage of being more advanced and concise than Spivak, but more gentle and detailed than baby Rudin -- two eminent texts.)

Alternatively, you can start exploring some other fascinating areas of mathematics. The suggestion to study Topology by Munkres is sound. You can also get a friendly introduction to abstract algebra by way of A Book of Abstract Algebra by Pinter.

If you're more interested in going into a field of science or engineering than math, another popular approach for advanced high schoolers to start multivariable calculus (as you are), linear algebra, and ordinary differential equations.

"A Book of Abstract Algebra" by Charles C. Pinter is nice, from what I've seen of it--which is about the first third. I'm going through it in an attempt to relearn the abstract algebra I've forgotten.

I was using Herstein (which was what I learned from the first time), and was doing fine, but saw the Pinter book at Barnes & Noble. I've found it is often helpful when relearning a subject to use a different book from the original, just to get a different approach, so gave it a try (it's a Dover, so was only ten bucks).

What is nice about the Pinter book is that it goes at a pretty relaxed pace, with a good variety of examples. A lot of the exercises apply abstract algebra to interesting things, like error correcting codes, and some of these things are developed over the exercises in several chapters.

You don't have to be a prodigy to be able to understand some real mathematics in middle school or early high school. By 9th grade, after a summer of reading calculus books from the local public library, I was able to follow things like Niven's proof that pi is irrational, for instance, and I was nowhere near a prodigy.

You're English is great.

I'd like to reemphasize /u/Plaetean's great suggestion of learning the math. That's so important and will make your later career much easier. Khan Academy seems to go all through differential equations. All of the more advanced topics they have differential and integral calculus of the single variable, multivariable calculus, ordinary differential equations, and linear algebra are very useful in physics.

As to textbooks that cover that material I've heard Div, Grad, Curl for multivariable/vector calculus is good, as is Strang for linear algebra. Purcell an introductory E&M text also has an excellent discussion of the curl.

As for introductory physics I love Purcell's E&M. I'd recommend the third edition to you as although it uses SI units, which personally I dislike, it has far more problems than the second, and crucially has many solutions to them included, which makes it much better for self study. As for Mechanics there are a million possible textbooks, and online sources. I'll let someone else recommend that.

I didn't take any lower division classes here but the upper division classes are pretty great. I haven't really had any bad professors and they seem to be a lot better at teaching than the professors in my upper division physics courses were.

The quarter system isn't bad. I think it's actually a good pace and the courses that have more than 10 weeks of content are 2 or 3 quarters long, which is great because it means you're not stuck in a class that you hate for very long.

The difficulty depends entirely on the professor, but I haven't had a class that was super difficult and uncurved. Curves always seem fair for the difficulty of the class. Finals are usually fair but midterms really suck because they're only 50 minutes long. You will probably do horrible on a few of them before you figure out a way to make it work. We have a much cushier path to upper division than most schools. Instead of being dumped into linear algebra or real analysis and having to learning how to do proofs, we have an intro to proofs and logic prerequisite and another class where you essentially just practice proof techniques that you will use in analysis later. I loved it because it let me focus on the material in my more challenging classes without having to figure out the mechanics and techniques of general proof writing.

One thing to keep in mind is that upper division math is nothing whatsoever like the math that you're probably used to. You essentially start over and learn things correctly, and you usually have to pretend that you don't know anything that you've learned over the past 14 years of math classes outside of basic arithmetic and algebra. You will be writing paragraphs in plain English with occasional math symbols. It's all about taking definitions and theorems that you know and using them to argue that other theorems are true. It's a lot more fun than it sounds. If you want to get a feel for what it's going to be like, check out this book:

http://www.amazon.com/How-Prove-Structured-Approach-2nd/dp/0521675995/

It's easy to find elsewhere. You don't need to know anything to get started and it's actually really fun to work through. This was the textbook for my intro to proofs class.

Hi there,

For all intents and purposes, for someone your level the following will be enough material to stick your teeth into for a while.

Mathematics: Its Content, Methods and Meaning https://www.amazon.com/Mathematics-Content-Methods-Meaning-Volumes/dp/0486409163

This is a monster book written by Kolmogorov, a famous probabilist and educator in maths. It will take you from very basic maths all the way to Topology, Analysis and Group Theory. It is however intended as an overview rather than an exhaustive textbook on all of the theorems, proofs and definitions you need to get to higher math.

For relearning foundations so that they're super strong I can only recommend:

Engineering Mathematics

https://www.amazon.co.uk/Engineering-Mathematics-K-Stroud/dp/1403942463

Engineering Mathematics is full of problems and each one is explained in detail. For getting your foundational, mechanical tools perfect, I'd recommend doing every problem in this book.

For low level problem solving I'd recommend going through the ENTIRE Art of Problem Solving curriculum (starting from Prealgebra).

https://www.artofproblemsolving.com/store/list/aops-curriculum

You might learn a thing or two about thinking about mathematical objects in new ways (as an example. When Prealgebra teaches you to think about inverses it forces you to consider 1/x as an object in its own right rather than 1 divided by x and to prove things. Same thing with -x. This was eye opening for me when I was making the transition from mechanical to more proof based maths.)

If you just want to know about what's going on in higher math then you can make do with:

The Princeton Companion to Mathematics

https://www.amazon.co.uk/Princeton-Companion-Mathematics-Timothy-Gowers/dp/0691118809

I've never read it but as far as I understand it's a wonderful book that cherry picks the coolest ideas from higher maths and presents them in a readable form. May require some base level of math to understand

EDIT: Further down the Napkin Project by Evan Chen was recommended by /u/banksyb00mb00m (http://www.mit.edu/~evanchen/napkin.html) which I think is awesome (it is an introduction to lots of areas of advanced maths for International Mathematics Olympiad competitors or just High School kids that are really interested in maths) but should really be approached post getting a strong foundation.

RPCV checking in. This is a good idea... you're going to have a lot of downtime and it's a great opportunity to read all the things you've wanted to but haven't yet found the time for. That could mean math, or languages, or just old novels.

When I was learning functional analysis, if found this book by Bollobas to be incredibly helpful. Of course, the only real analysis reference you need is Baby Rudin, but if you want to learn measure theory you may want his Real & Complex Analysis instead.

For texts on the other subjects, take a look at this list. You should be able to find anything you need there.

If you have any questions about Peace Corps, feel free to PM me. Good luck!

When you say everyday calculations I'm assuming you're talking about arithmetic, and if that's the case you're probably just better off using you're phone if it's too complex to do in you're head, though you may be interested in this book by Arthur Benjamin.

I'm majoring in math and electrical engineering so the math classes I take do help with my "everyday" calculations, but have never really helped me with anything non-technical. That said, the more math you know the more you can find it just about everywhere. I mean, you don't have to work at NASA to see the technical results of math, speech recognition applications like Siri or Ok Google on you're phone are insanely complex and far from a "solved" problem.

Definitely a ton of math in the medical field. MRIs and CT scanners use a lot of physics in combination with computational algorithms to create images, both of which require some pretty high level math. There's actually an example in one of my probability books that shows how important statistics can be in testing patients. It turns out that even if a test has a really high accuracy, if the condition is extremely rare there is a very high probability that a positive result for the test is a false positive. The book states that ~80% of doctors who were presented this question answered incorrectly.

Like justrasputin says, there usually is quite a lot of work to be done before you start to really see the beauty everyone refers to. I'd like to suggest a few book about mathematics, written by mathematicians that explicitly try to capture the beauty -

By Marcus Du Sautoy (A group theorist at oxford)

By G.H. Hardy,

Also, a good collection of seminal works -

God Created the Integers

And a nice starter -

What is Mathematics

Good luck and don't give up!

The foundation of probability is measure theory, not nonstandard analysis (the topic that includes the hyperreals). So, when dealing with statements about probability, we deal with probability measures, which assign numbers in the real interval [0, 1] to subsets of the space of possible events. (Perhaps someone has studied a variant of measure theory that substitutes the hyperreals for the reals, but if so, it's sufficiently obscure that I've never heard of it.)

Also, nowhere in all this is anyone "raising a real number to the power of infinity". There are formal statements of the following sort:

>(*) The limit of 1/2^N as N approaches infinity is zero.

However, this is a statement about the limit of a sequence of real numbers, which is most definitely a real number, and is also formally defined in a way that makes no reference to "infinity". The expression "as N approaches infinity" is just a mildly informal (but much more readable) way of expressing that formal definition.

If you care to parse the formal statement, here it is:

>For any real number ε > 0, there exists a natural number N such that for all natural numbers n ≥ N, we have |1/2^(N) - 0| < ε.

This is how we precisely formalize statement (*).

For more information on limits of sequences, I recommend reading a book on mathematical analysis. Spivak's

Calculushas a good chapter on this; it's an excellent book, so it's worth reading anyway.I am a Strange Loop is about the theorem

Another book I recommend is David Foster-Wallace's Everything and More. It's a creative book all about infinity, which is a very important philosophical concept and relates to mind and machines, and even God. Infinity exists within all integers and within all points in space. Another thing the human mind can't empirically experience but yet bears axiomatic, essential reality. How does the big bang give rise to such ordered structure? Is math invented or discovered? Well, if math doesn't change across time and culture, then it has essential existence in reality itself, and thus is discovered, and is not a construct of the human mind. Again, how does logic come out of the big bang? How does such order and beauty emerge in a system of pure flux and chaos? In my view, logic itself presupposes the existence of God. A metaphysical analysis of reality seems to require that base reality is mind, and our ability to perceive and understand the world requires that base reality be the omniscient, omnipresent mind of God.

Anyway these books are both accessible. Maybe at some point you'd want to dive into Godel himself. It's best to listen to talks or read books about deep philosophical concepts first. Jay Dyer does a great job on that

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-L9EOTsb1c&amp;t=11s

So here are some options I recommend:

You can find all the textbooks I mentioned online, if you know what I mean. All of these assume you haven't seen math in a while, and they all start from the very basics. Take your time with the material, play around with it a bit, and enjoy your summer :D

EditL this article describes one way you can go about your studies

Here's my list of the classics:

General ComputingComputer ScienceThe Dragon Book)CLRS)SICP, available for free on the MIT website)Software DevelopmentThe Gang of Four)Case StudiesEmploymentLanguage-SpecificCPythonC#C++JavaLinux Shell ScriptsWeb DevelopmentRuby and RailsAssemblyDon't skip proofs and wrestle through them. That's the only way; to struggle. Learning mathematics is generally a bit of a fight.

It's also true that computation theory is essentially all proofs. (Specifically, constructive proofs by contradiction).

You could try a book like this: https://www.amazon.com/Book-Proof-Richard-Hammack/dp/0989472108/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1537570440&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=book+of+proof

But I think these books won't really make you proficient, just more familiar with the basics. To become proficient, you should write proofs in a proper rigorous setting for proper material.

Sheldon Axler's "Linear Algebra Done Right" is really what taught me to properly do a proof. Also, I'm sure you don't really understand Linear Algebra, as will become

veryapparent if you read his book. I believe it's also targeted towards students who have seen linear algebra in an applied setting, but never rigorous and are new to proof-writing. That is, it's meant just for people like you.The book will surely benefit you in time. Both in better understanding linear algebra and computer science

classicslike isomorphisms and in becoming proficient at reading/understanding a mathematical texts and writing proofs to show it.I strongly recommend the second addition over the third addition. You can also find a solutions PDF for it online. Try Library Genesis. You don't need to read the entire book, just the first half and you should be well-prepared.

Group theory is important for theoretical physics and crystallography, but I think it takes a back seat to the topics I listed. I've survived to grad school without learning anything beyond the basics, though I would love to study it eventually. Unfortunately, I couldn't fit in an abstract algebra course during my undergrad, so I don't have a textbook to personally recommend, although Dummit and Foote is popular with others.

Also, pretty much every branch of math (except maybe number theory?) is useful in physics (category theory, combinatorics, topology, measure and probability theory etc) so it's hard to make a comprehensive list.

For compsci you need to study tons and tons and tons of discrete math. That means you don't need much of analysis business(too continuous). Instead you want to study combinatorics, graph theory, number theory, abstract algebra and the like.

Intro to math language(several of several million existing books on the topic). You want to study several books because what's overlooked by one author will be covered by another:

Discrete Mathematics with Applications by Susanna Epp

Mathematical Proofs: A Transition to Advanced Mathematics by Gary Chartrand, Albert D. Polimeni, Ping Zhang

Learning to Reason: An Introduction to Logic, Sets, and Relations by Nancy Rodgers

Numbers and Proofs by Allenby

Mathematics: A Discrete Introduction by Edward Scheinerman

How to Prove It: A Structured Approach by Daniel Velleman

Theorems, Corollaries, Lemmas, and Methods of Proof by Richard Rossi

Some special topics(elementary treatment):

Rings, Fields and Groups: An Introduction to Abstract Algebra by R. B. J. T. Allenby

A Friendly Introduction to Number Theory Joseph Silverman

Elements of Number Theory by John Stillwell

A Primer in Combinatorics by Kheyfits

Counting by Khee Meng Koh

Combinatorics: A Guided Tour by David Mazur

Just a nice bunch of related books great to have read:

generatingfunctionology by Herbert Wilf

The Concrete Tetrahedron: Symbolic Sums, Recurrence Equations, Generating Functions, Asymptotic Estimates by by Manuel Kauers, Peter Paule

A = B by Marko Petkovsek, Herbert S Wilf, Doron Zeilberger

If you wanna do graphics stuff, you wanna do some applied Linear Algebra:

Linear Algebra by Allenby

Linear Algebra Through Geometry by Thomas Banchoff, John Wermer

Linear Algebra by Richard Bronson, Gabriel B. Costa, John T. Saccoman

Best of Luck.

You need some grounding in foundational topics like Propositional Logic, Proofs, Sets and Functions for higher math. If you've seen some of that in your Discrete Math class, you can jump straight into Abstract Algebra, Rigorous Linear Algebra (if you know some LA) and even Real Analysis. If thats not the case, the most expository and clearly written book on the above topics I have ever seen is Learning to Reason: An Introduction to Logic, Sets, and Relations by Nancy Rodgers.

Some user friendly books on Real Analysis:

Some user friendly books on Linear/Abstract Algebra:

Topology(even high school students can manage the first two titles):

Some transitional books:

Plus many more- just scour your local library and the internet.

Good Luck, Dude/Dudette.

Math is essential the art pf careful reasoning and abstraction.

Do yes, definitely.

But it may be difficult at first, like training anything that’s not been worked.

Note: there are many varieties of math. I definitely recommend trying different ones.

A couple good books:

An Illustrated Theory of Numbers

Foolproof (first chapter is math history, but you can skip it to get to math)

A Book of Abstract Algebra

Also,

formal logicis really fun, imk. And excellent st teaching solid thinking. I don’t know a good intro book, but I’m sure others do.For whichever professor you have for Math 42, I highly recommend you get this book: https://www.amazon.com/How-Prove-Structured-Approach-2nd/dp/0521675995

It definitely saved me a ton. It’s straight to the point, and not as dry as most textbooks can be. Math 32 will be a bit more work, but in my experience just start homework early and don’t be afraid to go to professor office hours and ask questions. Even if they seem distant during class, most professors do appreciate students who make the effort to ask questions. If you need free tutoring in any of your classes, contact Peer Connections. Specifically for math, I believe MacQuarrie Hall room 221 offers drop-in tutoring for free as well! And for physics, Science building room 319 has free drop-in tutoring.

There's a lot of orders you could study mathematics in, and it's hard to say you should definitely pick one over the others.

One thing I can say pretty assuredly, though, is you should get a good background in algebra before you do much else. It's really the backbone of everything else. You can pick a bunch of different subjects after that, but study algebra first.

There are good online resources. Khan Academy is pretty good, as is Alcumus and Purple Math. Khan Academy has tests, and Alcumus is basically a big test.

Personally, though, I've learned way more from good books like this one than I tend to learn from websites.

Traditionally, a mathematical proof has one and only one job: convince other people that your proof is correct. (In this day and age, there is such a thing as a computer proof, but if you don't understand traditional proofs, you can't handle computer proofs either.)

Notice what I just said: "convince

other peoplethat your proof is correct." A proof is, in some sense, always an interactive undertaking, even if the interaction takes place across gulfs of space and time.Because interaction is so central to the notion of a proof, it is rare for students to successfully self-study how to write proofs. That seems like what you're asking. Don't get me wrong. Self-study helps. But it is not the only thing you need. You need, at some point, to go through the process of presenting your proofs to others, answering questions about your proof, adjusting your proof to take into account new feedback, and using this experience to anticipate likely issues in future proofs.

What you're proposing to do, in most cases, is the wrong strategy. You need more interactive experience, not less. You should be beating down the doors of your professor or TA in your class during their office hours, asking for feedback on your proofs. (This implies that you should be preparing your proofs in advance for them to read before going to their office hours.) If your school has a tutorial center, that's a wonderful resource as well. A math tutor who knows math proofs is a viable source of help, but if you don't know how to do proofs, it's hard for you to judge whether or not your tutor knows how to do proofs.

If you do self-study anything, you should not be self-studying calculus, linear algebra, real analysis, or abstract algebra. You should be self-studying how to do proofs. Some people here say that How to Prove It is a useful resource. My own position is that while self-studying can be helpful, it needs to be balanced with some amount of external interactive feedback in order to really stick.

Well, Hardy & Wright is the classic book for elementary stuff. It has almost everything there is to know. There is also a nice book by Melvyn Nathanson called Elementary Methods in Number Theory which I really like and would probably be my first recommendation. Beyond that, you need to decide which flavour you like. Algebraic and analytic are the big branches.

For algebraic number theory you'll need a solid grounding in commutative algebra and Galois theory - say at the level of Dummit and Foote. Lang's book is pretty classic, but maybe a tough first read. I might try Number Fields by Marcus.

For analytic number theory, I think Davenport is the best option, although Montgomery and Vaughan is also popular.

Finally, Serre (who is often deemed the best math author ever) has the classic Course in Arithmetic which contains a bit of everything.

Sure! There is a lot of math involved in the WHY component of Computer Science, for the basics, its Discrete Mathematics, so any introduction to that will help as well.

http://www.amazon.com/Discrete-Mathematics-Applications-Susanna-Epp/dp/0495391328/ref=sr_sp-atf_title_1_1?s=books&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1368125024&amp;sr=1-1&amp;keywords=discrete+mathematics

This next book is a great theoretical overview of CS as well.

http://mitpress.mit.edu/sicp/full-text/book/book.html

That's a great book on computer programming, complexity, data types etc... If you want to get into more detail, check out: http://www.amazon.com/Introduction-Theory-Computation-Michael-Sipser/dp/0534950973

I would also look at Coursera.org's Algorithm lectures by Robert Sedgewick, thats essential learning for any computer science student.

His textbook: http://www.amazon.com/Algorithms-4th-Robert-Sedgewick/dp/032157351X/ref=sr_sp-atf_title_1_1?s=books&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1368124871&amp;sr=1-1&amp;keywords=Algorithms

another Algorithms textbook bible: http://www.amazon.com/Introduction-Algorithms-Thomas-H-Cormen/dp/0262033844/ref=sr_sp-atf_title_1_2?s=books&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1368124871&amp;sr=1-2&amp;keywords=Algorithms

I'm just like you as well, I'm pivoting, I graduated law school specializing in technology law and patents in 2012, but I love comp sci too much, so i went back into school for Comp Sci + jumped into the tech field and got a job at a tech company.

These books are theoretical, and they help you understand why you should use x versus y, those kind of things are essential, especially on larger applications (like Google's PageRank algorithm). Once you know the theoretical info, applying it is just a matter of picking the right tool, like Ruby on Rails, or .NET, Java etc...

You can start with Calculus by Spivak. If you're going to buy it then wait until after the Fall semester begins; the price is inflated right now because students need it for school.

This is a PDF of the third edition of the above book.

This is an excellent introduction to logic and proofs. You will want a strong understanding of how mathematicians communicate via proof and that book will really help.

The math subreddit is primarily undergrads talking about various topics. Make a point of just hanging out and reading stuff. If you don't understand something just tell us and they'll do their best to help out.

Hang out on the math stack exchange and ask questions about things you do not understand while trying to help with things you do understand.

Hope that helps!

I heard good things about it, but honestly as an applied mathematician I found its table of contents too lackluster. Its coverage appears to be in a weird spot between "for physicists" and "for mathematicians" and I don't know who its target audience is. I think the standard recommendation for classical mechanics from the physics side is Goldstein, which is a perfectly good book with plenty of math!

For an actual mathematicians' take on classical mechanics, you'll have to wait until you take more advanced math, namely real analysis and differential geometry. Common references are Spivak and Tu. When you have that background, I think Arnold has the best mathematical treatment of classical mechanics.

This may not exactly be an answer to your question but I would recommend buying this book: https://www.amazon.com/Mathematics-Elementary-Approach-Ideas-Methods/dp/0195105192

It's not quite a textbook nor it is a pop-sci book for the layperson. The blurb on the front says " "A lucid representation of the fundamental concepts and methods of the whole field of mathematics." - Albert Einstein"

In and of itself it is not a complete curriculum. It doesn't have anything about linear algebra for example but you could learn a lot of mathematics from it. It would be accessible to a reasonably intelligent and interested high-schooler, it touches on a variety of topics you may see in an undergraduate mathematics degree and it is a great introduction to thinking about mathematics in a slightly more creative and rigorous way. In fact I would say this book changed my life and I don't think I'm the only one. I'm not sure if i would be pursuing a degree in math if I had never encountered it. Also it's pretty cheap.

If you're still getting a handle on how to manipulate fractions and stuff like that you might not be ready for it but you will be soon enough.

First, please make sure everyone understands they are capable of teaching the entire subject without a textbook. "What am I to teach?" is answered by the Common Core standards. I think it's best to free teachers from the tyranny of textbooks and the entire educational system from the tyranny of textbook publishers. If teachers never address this, it'll likely never change.

Here are a few I think are capable to being used but are not part of a larger series to adopt beyond one course:

Most any book by Serge Lang, books written by mathematicians and without a host of co-writers and editors are more interesting, cover the same topics, more in depth, less bells, whistles, fluff, and unneeded pictures and other distracting things, and most of all, tell a coherent story and argument:

Geometry and solutions

Basic Mathematics is a precalculus book, but might work with some supplementary work for other classes.

A First Course in Calculus

For advanced students, and possibly just a good teacher with all students, the Art of Problem Solving series are very good books:

Middle & high school:

and elementary linked from their main page. I have seen the latter myself.

Some more very good books that should be used more, by Gelfand:

The Method of Coordinates

Functions and Graphs

Algebra

Trigonometry

Lines and Curves: A Practical Geometry Handbook

What level E&M? If it is intro physics 2 then look for AP physics B/C stuff in addition to what you would normally look for since that's the same level.

If it is an upper division E&M class then I will recommend a book you can probably find in most of your professors offices somewhere: Div, Grad, Curl, and All That. Older editions are much cheaper even and archive.org has a PDf of the 3rd edition. I have no idea what the differences are, but I have the 4th and it is just great.

I have yet to find an E&M textbook I like. Griffiths is alright and when paired with Div, Grad, Curl and maybe a Schaum's outline on E&M it forms what I think should just be one textbook.

As for online resources I think The Mechanical Universe about Maxwell does a great job at covering Maxwell's laws, especially the bit starting around 15 minutes in

I've never used this site but it looks like it has a bunch of solved problems as well.

I began doing it in my head the same way. For clarity, my thought processes were based on the idea of "don't do something hard, do something easier instead and then fix it up afterwards", roughly:

1000 =oh screw this, I'm convinced I could do it, but this is not fun any more

could* go and learn them. For example, here is a book by one of the world's best people at mental arithmetic, Arthur Benjamin; the book is filled with techniques you can use to make mental arithmetic easier. See him on TED here.(I stopped there because I just wasn't looking forward to adding 973 to 243250, but was pretty sure I could slog my way through it if I actually had to.)

But there are lots of tricks you can do to make mental math easier. I don't know them, but like the above, I know that I

For real analysis I really enjoyed Understanding Analysis for how clear the material was presented for a first course. For abstract algebra I found A book of abstract algebra to be very concise and easy to read for a first course. Those two textbooks were a lifesaver for me since I had a hard time with those two courses using the notes and textbook for the class. We were taught out of rudin and dummit and foote as mainly a reference book and had to rely on notes primarily but those two texts were incredibly helpful to understand the material.

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If any undergrads are struggling with those two courses I would highly recommend you check out those two textbooks. They are by far the easiest introduction to those two fields I have found. I also like that you can find solutions to all the exercises so it makes them very valuable for self study also. Both books also have a reasonable amount of excises so that you can in theory do nearly every problem in the book which is also nice compared to standard texts with way too many exercises to realistically go through.

You could read Timothy Gowers' welcome to the math students at Oxford, which is filled with great advice and helpful links at the bottom.

You could read this collection of links on efficient study habits.

You could read this thread about what it takes to succeed at MIT (which really should apply everywhere). Tons of great discussion in the lower comments.

You could read

How to Solve Itand/orHow to Prove It.If you can work your way through these two books over the summer, you'll be better prepared than 90% of the incoming math majors (conservatively). They'll make your foundation rock solid.

You might want to check out Stein and Shakarchi's book Complex Analysis http://press.princeton.edu/titles/7563.html. This book is a bit hard but iirc doesn't require you to have had real analysis before hand. I would highly recommend that you work through a proof based book before hand though. Often times this will be a course book but something like https://www.amazon.com/How-Prove-Structured-Approach-2nd/dp/0521675995?ie=UTF8&amp;*Version*=1&amp;*entries*=0 that should also get the job done.

Or you can go the traditional route like other people mentioned of getting about a semester's worth of real analysis under your belt. The reason why this is usually the suggested path is because it's not expected that you are 100% competent at writing proofs in the beginning of real but you are in complex.

Honestly, I highly recommend this book, and pretty much anything else by Arthur Benjamin. He's the real deal when it comes to mental math. Take it seriously, and do

tonsof practice problems. Feel free to go "fast" through the book the first time through, but go super slow the second time through and get everything super solid.After completing the book you'll be able to do squares, multiplication, division, addition, subtraction pretty damn fast up to around 3-4 digits. With more practice you can eventually get as good as Prof. Benjamin (he doesn't leave anything out! Tells you the entire technique). By more, I mean

yearsmore, but hey, at least it's possibleWhat do you want to do, though? Is your goal to read math textbooks and later, maybe, math papers or is it for science/engineering? If it's the former, I'd simply ditch all that calc business and get started with "actual" math. There are about a million books designed to get you in the game. For one, try Book of Proof by Richard Hammack. It's free and designed to get your feet wet. Mathematical Proofs: A Transition to Advanced Mathematics by Chartrand/Polimeni/Zhang is my favorite when it comes to books of this kind. You'll also pick up a lot of math from Discrete Math by Susanna Epp. These books assume no math background and will give you the coveted "math maturity".

There is also absolutely no shortage of subject books that will nurse you into maturity. For example, check out [The Real Analysis Lifesaver: All the Tools You Need to Understand Proofs by Grinberg](https://www.amazon.com/Real-Analysis-Lifesaver-Understand-Princeton/dp/0691172935/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1486754571&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=real+analysis+lifesaver() and Book of Abstract Algebra by Pinter. There's also Linear Algebra by Singh. It's roughly at the level of more famous LADR by Axler, but doesn't require you have done time with lower level LA book first. The reason I recommend this book is because every theorem/lemma/proposition is illustrated with a concrete example. Sort of uncommon in a proof based math book. Its only drawback is its solution manual. Some of its proofs are sloppy, messy. But there's mathstackexchange for that. In short, every subject of math has dozens and dozens of intro books designed to be as gentle as possible. Heck, these days even grad level subjects are ungrad-ized: The Lebesgue Integral for Undergraduates by Johnson. I am sure there are such books even on subjects like differential geometry and algebraic geometry. Basically, you have choice. Good Luck!

Linear algebra is about is about linear functions and is typically taken in the first or second year of college. College algebra normally refers to a remedial class that covers what most people do in high school. I highly recommend watching this series of videos for getting an intuitive idea of linear algebra no matter what book you go with. The book you should use depends on how comfortable you are with proofs and what your goal is. If you just want to know how to calculate and apply it, I've heard Strang's book with the accompanying MIT opencourseware course is good. This book also looks good if you're mostly interested in programming applications. A more abstract book like Linear Algebra Done Right or Linear Algebra Done Wrong would probably be more useful if you were familiar with mathematical proofs beforehand. How to Prove it is a good choice for learning this.

I haven't seen boolean algebra used to refer to an entire course, but if you want to learn logic and some proof techniques you could look at How to Prove it.

Most calculus books cover both differential and integral calculus. Differential calculus refers to taking derivatives. A derivative essentially tells you how rapidly a function changes at a certain point. Integral calculus covers finding areas under curves(aka definite integrals) and their relationship with derivatives. This series gives some excellent explanations for most of the ideas in calculus.

Analysis is more advanced, and is typically only done by math majors. You can think of it as calculus with complete proofs for everything and more abstraction. I would not recommend trying to learn this without having a strong understanding of calculus first. Spivak's Calculus is a good compromise between full on analysis and a standard calculus class. It's possible to use this as a first exposure to calculus, but it would be difficult.

Besides what has been said here, why don't you ask your parents to purchase you a fun math textbook? You'll have to do some research but why not just have some initiative and pick up your own algebra textbook and learn at your own pace? Maybe you might in interested in the Art of Problem Solving Series. You have an entire school of math teachers to ask for help if you get stuck somewhere. You have the internet (here being one of the places you can ask about anything math related; StackExchange is another good place). If I recall correctly, you can even "enroll" in online courses using edX that you can do on your own time. I often recommend to people Basic Mathematics because it covers everything that you should know math-wise before college. Some of the material might be advanced to you now but you can work through the book easily if what you claim about knowing all the material for your class is true.

Here are some books I'd recommend.

General BooksThese are general books that are more focused on proving things

per se. They'll use examples from basic set theory, geometry, and so on.Topical BooksFor learning topically, I'd suggest starting with a topic you're already familiar with or can become easily familiar with, and try to develop more rigor around it. For example, discrete math is a nice playground to learn about proving things because the topic is both deep and approachable by a beginning math student. Similarly, if you've taken AP or IB-level calculus then you'll get a lot of out a more rigorous treatment of calculus.

I have a special place in my hear for Spivak's Calculus, which I think is probably the best introduction out there to math-as-she-is-spoke. I used it for my first-year undergraduate calculus course and realized within the first week that the "math" I learned in high school — which I found tedious and rote — was not really math at all. The folks over at /r/calculusstudygroup are slowly working their way through it if you want to work alongside similarly motivated people.

General AdviceOne way to get accustomed to "proof" is to go back to, say, your Algebra II course in high school. Let's take something I'm sure you've memorized inside and out like the quadratic formula. Can you prove it?

I don't even mean derive it, necessarily. It's easy to check that the quadratic formula gives you two roots for the polynomial, but how do you know there aren't

otherroots? You're told that a quadratic polynomial has at most two distinct roots, a cubic polynomial has a most three, a quartic as most four, and perhaps even told that in general an n^(th) degree polynomial has at most n distinct roots.But how do you know? How do you know there's not a third root lurking out there somewhere?

To answer this you'll have to develop a deeper understanding of what polynomials really are, how you can manipulate them, how different properties of polynomials are affected by those manipulations, and so on.

Anyways, you can revisit pretty much any topic you want from high school and ask yourself, "But how do I really know?" That way rigor (and proofs) lie. :)

For those that just think it's funny because it might be something you see in a textbook, it's not just that. This joke is a direct reference to Fermat's Last Theorem, which was proposed in 1637 and the text above was scribbled in the sidebar of the paper. It wasn't actually proven until 1994, 350+ years later.

Interestingly enough, it's unlikely that the current proof, which I think was around 300 pages, was anything like Fermat's proof that he alluded to (and possibly never had, which makes him an amazing troll). The current proof used methods that were not developed until recently, and I believe the author of the proof even developed some new mathematics in order to solve it.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermat's_Last_Theorem

Here's a great book on it, and the guy that finally provided the proof. Definitely worth reading, it's not boring at all: http://www.amazon.com/Fermats-Enigma-Greatest-Mathematical-Problem/dp/0385493622

There's a lot of ground to cover in math, but completely doable. I'm going to recommend a dense book, but I truly think it's worth the read.

Let me leave you with this. You understand how number work correct? 1 + 1 = 2. It's a matter of fact. It's not up for debate and to question it would see you insane.

This is all of math. You

needto truly understand1 + 1 = 2

a + a = b everything is a function. There are laws to everything, even if people wish to deny it. If we don't understand it, it's easier to state that there are no laws that govern it, but there are. You just don't know them yet. Math isn't overwhelming when you think of it that way, at least to me. It's whole.

Ask yourself, 'why does 1 + 1 = 2 ?' If you were given 1 + x = 2, how would you solve it? Why exactly would you solve it that way? What governing set of rules are you using to solve the equation? You don't need to memorize the names of the rules, but how to use them. Understand the terminology in math, or any language, and it's easier to grasp that language.

The book Mathematics

There are a few options. Firstly, if you are more familiar using infinity in the context of Calculus, then you might want to look into Real Analysis. These subjects view infinity in the context of limits on the real line and this is probably the treatment you are probably most familiar with. For an introductory book on the subject, check out Baby Rudin (Warning: Proofs! But who doesn't like proofs, that's what math is!)

Secondly, you might want to look at Projective Geometry. This is essentially the type of geometry you get when you add a single point "at infinity". Many things benefit from a projective treatment, the most obvious being Complex Analysis, one of its main objects of study is the Riemann Sphere, which is just the Projective Complex Plane. This treatment is related to the treatment given in Real Analysis, but with a different flavor. I don't have any particular introductory book to recommend, but searching "Introductory Projective Geometry" in Amazon will give you some books, but I have no idea if they're good. Also, look in your university library. Again: Many Proofs!

The previous two treatments of infinity give a geometric treatment of the thing, it's nothing but a point that seems far away when we are looking at things locally, but globally it changes the geometry of an object (it turns the real line into a circle, or a closed line depending on what you're doing, and the complex plane into a sphere, it gets more complicated after that). But you could also look at infinity as a quantitative thing, look at how many things it takes to get an infinite number of things. This is the treatment of it in Set Theory. Here things get

reallywild, so wild Set Theory is mostly just the study of infinite sets. For example, there is more than one type of infinity. Intuitively we have countable infinity (like the integers) and we have uncountable infinity (like the reals), but there are even more than that. In fact, there are more types of infinities than any of the infinities can count! The collection of all infinities is "too big" to even be a set! For an introduction into this treatment I recommend Suppes and Halmos. Set Theory, when youactuallystudy it, is a very abstract subject, so there will be more proofs here than in the previous ones and it may be over your head if you haven't taken any proof-based courses (I don't know your background, so I'm just assuming you've taken Calc 1-3, Diff Eq andmaybesome kind of Matrix Algebra course), so patience will be a major virtue if you wish to tackle Set Theory. Maybe ask some professors for help!I graduated w/ degree in Math n' Physics but have been doing programming for startup for last 5+ years so many of my math skills got rusty.

While trying to get back into it went through several books and have found this to be the best if you're interested in more advanced mathematics: https://www.amazon.com/Mathematical-Proofs-Transition-Advanced-Mathematics/dp/0321797094. It's not only been an excellent review but has fleshed out some areas I was weak (in higher level courses like complex analysis, topology, group theory the methodology of proofs was assumed and often not taught).

The explanations are solid, varied, and they go through each proof they present (often w/ exhaustive step-by-step details).

From there pick a domain you're interested in and pickup the relevant undergraduate (and maybe some graduate) level books/textbooks and see if you can pick it up.

If desired, it is possible to make an elementary argument that (1+x/n)^n converges, for each x, to a function e(x) satisfying e(x)e(y) = e(x+y), using just inequalities to show convergence of the needed limits. This is outlined, for example, in the chapter on the AM-GM inequality in this book: https://www.amazon.com/Inequalities-Journey-into-Linear-Analysis/dp/0521876249

There's also an exercise in the first chapter of Baby Rudin outlining how to define exponentials using least upper bounds and monotonicity properties:

https://www.amazon.com/Principles-Mathematical-Analysis-International-Mathematics/dp/007054235X

Honestly though, while in general I support showing students the details, this is a case where I think that, pedagogically, it's right to pull the wool over students' eyes until the time is right. It's so much more elegant to define the exponential function as the solution of a differential equation, or as the sum of a power series, or as the inverse of the logarithm (defined as an integral), that one should simply put off a fully rigorous definition until it can be given in one of these forms.

The reasoning in doing so is not circular: The basic properties of integrals, power series, and solutions of differential equations are established through abstract theorems, and then one can use these tools to define the exponential and logarithmic functions and derive their properties. (See https://proofwiki.org/wiki/Definition:Exponential and https://proofwiki.org/wiki/Equivalence_of_Definitions_of_Complex_Exponential)

Until then about all that needs to be mentioned is that a^m is a product of m copies of a, a^1/n is the nth root, a^m/n = (a^(1/n))^(m), and that this extends in a natural way to irrational exponents; as well as compound interest and the fact that (1+x/n)^n converges to a power of a special number e approx 2.718281827459, which is the "natural base" of the logarithm for reasons to be explained later.

Here is the ooh page on Statisticians:

http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos045.htm

A job straight out of college might see you as a research assistant. I could see you getting a job at Mathematica perhaps. Try to get a SAS certificate before you graduate, a working knowledge of R, and if you feel like tackling it a programming language good for numerical analysis.

Have you taken a course on Regression? I'd consider that, and perhaps even trying to take a Mathematical Statistics Course, if it is offered. You can try to see if you university would allow you to take a class online, or try a Semester Abroad at a university that has that class.

My background: I am an Economist that uses Statistics heavily, and works with Statistical methods often (ie: econometrics). I love it.

Your plans on studying Calc 2 and Linear Algebra are great. That is perfect.

My pay after 10 years is likely to be 100k-150k.

Before you start your first semester at the graduate level know the following things really well: Set theory, integration, matrix algebra, and proofs.

Get this book: http://www.amazon.com/How-Prove-Structured-Daniel-Velleman/dp/0521675995 -- read it before you study linear algebra, and maybe even some Calculus. It doesn't require a heavy Math background and will save you a lot of frustration later on.

Yeah either of those are easier. I don't like Fraleigh cause I think it lacks motivation (also the chapters on splitting/separable fields really suck) but I love Herstein. If you're set on cheap, this guy ain't too bad. If I were self studying though I would try to find a cheap older edition of Artin, as he's very example motivated, and it can sometimes be hard to wrap your head around all the abstraction without a class.

EDIT: Also you might want to find a cheap number theory text, since elementary number theory is probably the most accessible way to see groups and rings in action. And for "how do I prove xxx" questions I always recommend starting with this.

>My first goal is to understand the beauty that is calculus.

There are two "types" of Calculus. The one for engineers - the plug-and-chug type and the theory of Calculus called Real Analysis. If you want to see the actual beauty of the subject you might want to settle for the latter. It's rigorous and proof-based.

There are some great intros for RA:

Numbers and Functions: Steps to Analysis by Burn

A First Course in Mathematical Analysis by Brannan

Inside Calculus by Exner

Mathematical Analysis and Proof by Stirling

Yet Another Introduction to Analysis by Bryant

Mathematical Analysis: A Straightforward Approach by Binmore

Introduction to Calculus and Classical Analysis by Hijab

Analysis I by Tao

Real Analysis: A Constructive Approach by Bridger

Understanding Analysis by Abbot.

Seriously, there are just too many more of these great intros

But you need a good foundation. You need to learn the basics of math like logic, sets, relations, proofs etc.:

Learning to Reason: An Introduction to Logic, Sets, and Relations by Rodgers

Discrete Mathematics with Applications by Epp

Mathematics: A Discrete Introduction by Scheinerman

If it helps, here are some free books to go through:

Linear Algebra Done Wrong

Paul's Online Math Notes (fantastic for Calc 1, 2, and 3)

Basic Analysis

Basic Analysis is pretty basic, so I'd recommend going through Rudin's book afterwards, as it's generally considered to be among the best analysis books ever written. If the price tag is too high, you can get the same book much cheaper, although with crappier paper and softcover via methods of questionable legality. Also because Rudin is so popular, you can find solutions online.

If you want something better than online notes for univariate Calculus, get Spivak's Calculus, as it'll walk you through single-variable Calculus using more theory than a standard math class. If you're able to get through that and Rudin, you should be good to go once you get good at linear algebra.

Intro Calculus, in American sense, could as well be renamed "Physics 101" or some such since it's not a very mathematical course. Since Intro Calculus won't teach you how to think you're gonna need a book like How to Solve Word Problems in Calculus by Eugene Don and Benay Don pretty soon.

Aside from that, try these:

Excursions In Calculus by Robert Young.

Calculus:A Liberal Art by William McGowen Priestley.

Calculus for the Ambitious by T. W. KORNER.

Calculus: Concepts and Methods by Ken Binmore and Joan Davies

You can also start with "Calculus proper" = Analysis. The Bible of not-quite-analysis is:

[Calculus by Michael Spivak] (http://www.amazon.com/Calculus-4th-Michael-Spivak/dp/0914098918/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1413311074&amp;sr=1-1&amp;keywords=spivak+calculus).

Also, Analysis is all about inequalities as opposed to Algebra(identities), so you want to be familiar with them:

Introduction to Inequalities by Edwin F. Beckenbach, R. Bellman.

Analytic Inequalities by Nicholas D. Kazarinoff.

As for Linear Algebra, this subject is all over the place. There is about a million books of all levels written every year on this subject, many of which is trash.

My plan would go like this:

1. Learn the geometry of LA and how to prove things in LA:

Linear Algebra Through Geometry by Thomas Banchoff and John Wermer.

Linear Algebra, Third Edition: Algorithms, Applications, and Techniques

by Richard Bronson and Gabriel B. Costa.

2. Getting a bit more sophisticated:

Linear Algebra Done Right by Sheldon Axler.

Linear Algebra: An Introduction to Abstract Mathematics by Robert J. Valenza.

Linear Algebra Done Wrong by Sergei Treil.

3. Turn into the LinAl's 1% :)

Advanced Linear Algebra by Steven Roman.

Good Luck.

If you have a chance, I recommend checking out some textbooks on real analysis, which will guide you through the derivations and proofs of many theorems in calculus that you've thus far been expected to take for granted.

Some would recommend starting with Rudin's Principles of Mathematical Analysis, and it's certainly a text that I plan to read at some point. For your purposes, I might recommend Spivak's Calculus since it expects you to rigorously derive some of the most important results in calculus through proof-writing exercises. This was my first introduction to calculus during high-school. While it was overwhelming at first, it prepared me for some of my more advanced undergraduate courses (including real analysis and topology), and it seems to be best described as an advanced calculus textbook.

Simon Singh explains.

edit: Hey, I didn't expect this to become the top comment. Neat. Might as well abuse it, by providing bonus material:

This is the same Simon Singh discussed in this recent and popular Reddit post; he is a superhero of science popularization. He has written some excellent and highly rated books:

(

full disclosure: I have nothing to disclose, other than that I'm a fan of his work.)For classes like number theory and abstract algebra, I would suggest just picking up a book and attempting to read it. It will be hard, but the main prerequisite for courses like this is some mathematical maturity. That only comes with practice.

Realistically there is probably no preparation that you could have which would prepare you in such a way that a book on advanced mathematics would be super easy.

I like this number theory book

http://www.amazon.com/Number-Theory-Dover-Books-Mathematics/dp/0486682528/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1348165257&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=number+theory

I like this abstract algebra book

http://www.amazon.com/Book-Abstract-Algebra-Second-Mathematics/dp/0486474178/ref=sr_1_2?s=books&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1348165294&amp;sr=1-2&amp;keywords=abstract+algebra

Azcel wrote a good book on Fermat's Last Theorem and Wiles' solution. Amazon

Simon Singh's book on the same subject is also good, but Amazon has it at $10.17 whereas Azcel's is $0.71 better at $10.88.

Either way you get an enjoyable read of one man's dedication to solve a notoriously tricky problem and just enough of the mathematical landscape to get a sense of what was involved.

Another fun & light holiday read is Polya's 'How To Solve it' - read the glowing reviews over at Amazon

Hey mathit.

I'm 32, and just finished a 3 year full-time adult education school here in Germany to get the Abitur (SAT-level education) which allows me to study. I'm collecting my graduation certificate tomorrow, woooo!

Now, I'm going to study math in october and wanted to know what kind of extra prep you might recommend.

I'm currently reading How to Prove It and The Haskell Road to Logic, Maths and Programming.

Both overlap quite a bit, I think, only that the latter is more focused on executing proofs on a computer.

Now, I've just been looking into books that might ease the switch to uni-level math besides the 2 already mentioned and the most promising I found are these two:

How to Study for a Mathematics Degree and Bridging the Gap to University Mathematics.

Do you agree with my choices? What else do you recommend?

I found online courses to be ineffective, I prefer books.

What's your opinion, mathit?

Cheers and many thanks in advance!

I am surprised no one has mentioned M. Spivak's very well known text Calculus. I thought this book was a pleasure to read. His writing was very fun and lighthearted and the book certainly teaches the material very well. In my opinion this is the best introductory calculus text there is.

I am a master's student with interests in algebraic geometry and number theory. And I have a good collection of textbooks on various topics in these two fields. Also, as part of my undergraduate curriculum, I learnt

abstract algebrafrom the books by Dummit-Foote, Hoffman-Kunze, Atiyah-MacDonald and James-Liebeck;analysisfrom the books by Bartle-Sherbert, Simmons, Conway, Bollobás and Stein-Shakarchi;topologyfrom the books by Munkres and Hatcher; anddiscrete mathematicsfrom the books by Brualdi and Clark-Holton. I also had basic courses indifferential geometryandmultivariable calculusbut no particular textbook was followed. (Please note that none of the above-mentioned textbooks was read from cover to cover).As you can see, I didn't learn much

geometryduring my past 4 years of undergraduate mathematics. In high school, I learnt a good amount of Euclidean geometry but after coming to university geometry appears very mystical to me. I keep hearing terms like hyperbolic/spherical geometry, projective geometry, differential geometry, Riemannian manifold etc. and have read general maths books on them, like the books by Hartshorne, Ueno-Shiga-Morita-Sunada and Thorpe.I will be grateful if you could suggest a series of books on geometry (like Stein-Shakarchi's Princeton Lectures in Analysis) or a book discussing various flavours of geometry (like Dummit-Foote for algbera). I am aware that Coxeter has written a series of textbooks in geometry, and I have read Geometry Revisited in high school (which I enjoyed). If these are the ideal textbooks, then where to start? Also, what about the geometry books by Hilbert?

To answer your second question, KhanAcademy is always good for algebra/trig/basic calc stuff. Another good resource is Paul's online Math Notes, especially if you prefer reading to watching videos.

To answer your second question, here are some classic texts you could try (keep in mind that parts of them may not make all that much sense without knowing any calculus or abstract algebra):

Men of Mathematicsby E.T. BellThe History of Calculusby Carl BoyerSome other well-received math history books:

An Intro to the History of Mathby Howard Eves,Journey Through Geniusby William Dunham, Morris Kline's monumental 3-part series (1, 2, 3) (best left until later), and another brilliant book by Dunham.And the MacTutor History of Math site is a

greatresource.Finally, some really great historical thrillers that deal with some really exciting stuff in number theory:

Fermat's Enigmaby Simon SighThe Music of the Primesby Marcus DuSautoyAlso (I know this is a lot), this is a widely-renowned and cheap book for learning about modern/university-level math:

Concepts of Modern Mathby Ian Stewart.I think the most important part of being able to see beauty in mathematics is transitioning to texts which are based on proofs rather than application. A side effect of gaining the ability to read and write proofs is that you're forced to deeply understand the theory of the math you're learning, as well as actively using your intuition to solve problems, rather than dry route calculations found in most application based textbooks. Based on what you've written, I feel you may enjoy taking this path.

Along these lines, you could start of with Book of Proof (free) or How to Prove It. From there, I would recommend starting off with a lighter proof based text, like Calculus by Spivak, Linear Algebra Done Right by Axler, or Pinter's book as you mentioned. Doing any intro proofs book plus another book at the level I mentioned here would have you well prepared to read any standard book at the undergraduate level (Analysis, Algebra, Topology, etc).

There are some really good books that you can use to give yourself a solid foundation for further self-study in mathematics. I've used them myself. The great thing about this type of book is that you can just do the exercises from one side of the book to the other and then be confident in the knowledge that you understand the material. It's nice! Here are my recommendations:

First off, three books on the basics of algebra, trigonometry, and functions and graphs. They're all by a guy called Israel Gelfand, and they're good: Algebra, Trigonometry, and Functions and Graphs.

Next, one of two books (they occupy the same niche, material-wise) on general proof and problem-solving methods. These get you in the headspace of constructing proofs, which is really good. As someone with a bachelors in math, it's disheartening to see that proofs are misunderstood and often disliked by students. The whole point of learning and understanding proofs (and reproducing them yourself) is so that you gain an understanding of the

whyof the problem under consideration, not just thehow... Anyways, I'm rambling! Here they are: How To Prove It: A Structured Approach and How To Solve It.And finally a book which is a little bit more terse than the others, but which serves to reinforce the key concepts: Basic Mathematics.

After that you have the basics needed to take on any math textbook you like really - beginning from the foundational subjects and working your way upwards, of course. For example, if you wanted to improve your linear algebra skills (e.g. suppose you wanted to learn a bit of machine learning) you could just study a textbook like Linear Algebra Done Right.

The hard part about this method is that it takes a lot of practice to get used to learning from a book. But that's also the upside of it because whenever you're studying it, you're

reallystudying it. It's a pretty straightforward process (bar the moments of frustration, of course).If you have any other questions about learning math, shoot me a PM. :)

I'll throw out some of my favorite books from my book shelf when it comes to Computer Science, User Experience, and Mathematics - all will be essential as you begin your journey into app development:

Universal Principles of Design

Dieter Rams: As Little Design as Possible

Rework by 37signals

Clean Code

The Art of Programming

The Mythical Man-Month

The Pragmatic Programmer

Design Patterns - "Gang of Four"

Programming Language Pragmatics

Compilers - "The Dragon Book"

The Language of Mathematics

A Mathematician's Lament

The Joy of x

Mathematics: Its Content, Methods, and Meaning

Introduction to Algorithms (MIT)

If time isn't a factor, and you're not needing to steamroll into this to make money, then I'd highly encourage you to start by using a lower-level programming language like C first - or, start from the database side of things and begin learning SQL and playing around with database development.

I feel like truly understanding data structures from the lowest level is one of the most important things you can do as a budding developer.

I'm not sure I understand your concern, but if you struggle with math, it may help to start with coding. It can make things a little more concrete. You might try code academy, a coding bootcamp, or MIT open courseware.

An Emory prof has a great intro stats course online: https://www.youtube.com/user/RenegadeThinking

Linear algebra is the foundation of the most widely used branch of stats. This book teaches it by coding example. It's full of interesting practical applications (there's a coursera course to go with it): https://www.amazon.com/Coding-Matrix-Algebra-Applications-Computer/dp/0615880991/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1469533241&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=coding+the+matrix

Once you start to feel comfortable, this book offers a great (albeit dense) introduction to mathematics. It used to be used in freshman gen ed math courses, but sadly, American unis decided that actually doing math/logic isn't a priority anymore: https://www.amazon.com/Mathematics-Elementary-Approach-Ideas-Methods/dp/0195105192/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1469533516&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=what+is+mathematics

Usual hierarchy of what comes after what is simply artificial. They like to teach Linear Algebra before Abstract Algebra, but it doesn't mean that it is all there's to Linear Algebra especially because Linear Algebra is a part of Abstract Algebra.

Example,

Linear Algebra for freshmen: some books that talk about manipulating matrices at length.

Linear Algebra for 2nd/3rd year undergrads: Linear Algebra Done Right by Axler

Linear Algebra for grad students(aka overkill): Advanced Linear Algebra by Roman

Basically, math is all interconnected and it doesn't matter where exactly you enter it.

Coming in cold might be a bit of a shocker, so studying up on foundational stuff before plunging into modern math is probably great.

Books you might like:

Discrete Mathematics with Applications by Susanna Epp

Learning to Reason: An Introduction to Logic, Sets, and Relations by Nancy Rodgers

Building Proofs: A Practical Guide by Oliveira/Stewart

Book Of Proof by Hammack

Mathematical Proofs: A Transition to Advanced Mathematics by Chartrand et al

How to Prove It: A Structured Approach by Velleman

The Nuts and Bolts of Proofs by Antonella Cupillary

How To Think About Analysis by Alcock

Principles and Techniques in Combinatorics by Khee-Meng Koh , Chuan Chong Chen

The Probability Tutoring Book: An Intuitive Course for Engineers and Scientists (and Everyone Else!) by Carol Ash

Problems and Proofs in Numbers and Algebra by Millman et al

Theorems, Corollaries, Lemmas, and Methods of Proof by Rossi

Mathematical Concepts by Jost - can't wait to start reading this

Proof Patterns by Joshi

...and about a billion other books like that I can't remember right now.

Good Luck.

For discrete math I like Discrete Mathematics with Applications by Suzanna Epp.

It's my opinion, but Learning to Reason: An Introduction to Logic, Sets, and Relations by Nancy Rodgers is much better structured and more in depth than How To Prove It by Velleman. If you follow everything she says, proofs will jump out at you. It's all around great intro to proofs, sets, relations.

Also, knowing some Linear Algebra is great for Multivariate Calculus.

Yes, they're awesome. Brought up pretty frequently on /r/math, too. I'm pretty sure I have at least 10 Dover books. Two excellent titles that come to mind are Pinter's A Book of Abstract Algebra and Rosenlicht's Introduction to Analysis.

None of the questions you asked is “silly” or “simple.” There’s a whole lot going on in calculus, most of which is typically explained in a real analysis course. Rigorous proofs of things like the mean value theorem or various forms of integration are challenging, but they will provide the clarity you’re looking for.

I recommend that you check out something like Spivak’s Calculus, which is going to give a more rigorous intro to the subject. Alternately, you can just find a good analysis or intro to proofs class somewhere. It’s a fascinating subject, so good luck!